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题目:

  泰山位于山东省西部。海拔1500余米,方圆约400平方公里。泰山不仅雄伟壮观,而且是一座历史文化名山,过去3000多年一直是人们前往朝拜的地方。据记载,共有72位帝王曾来此游览。许多作家到泰山获取灵感,写诗作文,艺术家也来此绘画。山上因此留下了许许多多的文物古迹。泰山如今已成为中国一处主要的旅游景点。

题目:

what does dutt aim to do with her study

A.raise recommendation writers' awareness of gender bias in their letters
B.open up fresh avenues for women post-doctors to join in research work
C.alert women researchers to all types of gender bias in the stem disciplines
D.start a public discussion on how to raise womens status in academic circles

题目:

What did dutt and her colleagues do with the more than 1, 200 letters of recommendation

A.they asked unbiased scholars to evaluate them dit them
B.they invited women professionais to edit them.
C.them assigned them randomly to reviewers
D.they deleted all information about gende

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visiting a bookshop as curiosity leads us can be a good way to entertain ourselves.

题目:

we should feel happy when we pursue knowledge for knowledge´s sake.

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  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short essay on how to best handle the relationship between parents and children. You should write at least 120 words but no more than 180 words.

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  华山位于华阴市,据西安120公里。华山是秦岭的一部分,秦岭不仅分割陕南与陕北,也分隔华南与华北。与从前人们常去朝拜的泰山不同,华山过去很少有人光临,因为上山的道路极其危险。然而,希望长寿大人却经常上山,因为山上生长着许多草药,特别是一些稀有的草药。自上世纪90年代安装缆车以来,参观人数大大增加。

题目:

What may hinder the future prospects of career women

A.Their unwillingness to say “no”.
B.Their desire to be considered powerful.
C.An underestimate of their own ability.
D.A lack of courage to face challenges.

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What did Dr. Sasaki find about the participants in her experiment

A.They tended to enjoy certain tones more than others.
B.They tended to perceive irregular beeps as a threat.
C.They felt sleepy when exposed to regular beeps.
D.They differed in their tolerance of irregular tones.

题目:

What did Dr. Sasaki do when re-running her experiment

A.She analyzed the negative effect of irregular tones on brains.
B.She recorded participants’ adaptation to changed environment.
C.She exposed her participants to two different stimuli.
D.She compared the responses of different participants.

题目:

What did Dr. Sasaki do when she first did her experiment

A.She monitored the brain activity of participants sleeping in a new environment.
B.She recruited 35 participants from her Department of Psychological Sciences.
C.She studied the differences between the two sides of participants’ brains.
D.She tested her findings about birds and dolphins on human subjects.

题目:

Certain professors believe in-class exams are ultimately more helpful to students.

题目:

阅读下文,选词填空
  A rat or pigeon might not be the obvious choice to tend to someone who is sick, but these creatures have some 26 skills that could help the treatment of human diseases.

  Pigeons are often seen as dirty birds and an urban 27 , but they are just the latest in a long line of animals that have been found to have abilities to help humans. Despite having a brain no bigger than the 28 of your index finger, pigeons have a very impressive 29__ memory. Recently it was shown that they could be trained to be as accurate as humans at detecting breast cancer in images.

  Rats are often 30 with spreading disease rather than 31 it, but this long-tailed animal is highly 32 . Inside a rat´s nose are up to 1,000 different types of olfactory receptors (嗅觉感受器), whereas humans only have 100 to 200 types. This gives rats the ability to detect __33 smells. As a result, some rats are being put to work to detect TB(肺结核). When the rats detect the smell, they stop and rub their legs to 34 a sample is infected.

  Traditionally, a hundred samples would take lab technicians more than two days to 35 , but for a rat it takes less than 20 minutes. This rat detection method doesn´t rely on specialist equipment. It is also more accurate — the rats are able to find more TB infections and, therefore, save more lives.
第26题答案________

A.associated
B.examine
C.indicate
D.nuisance
E.peak
F.preventing
G.prohibiting
H.sensitive
I.slight
J.specify
K.superior
L.susipicious
M.tip
N.treated
O.visual

题目:

  Part I Writing (25 minutes)
  Directions: For this part, you are allowed 30 minutes to write a short easy on how to besthandle the relationship between doctors and patients. You should write at least120 words but no more than 180 words.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
As we have seen, the focus of medical care in our society has beenshifting from curing disease to preventing disease--especially in terms ofchanging our many unhealthy behaviors, such as poor eating habits,smoking, and failure to exercise. The line of thought involved in thisshift can be pursued further. Imagine a person who is about the rightweight, but does not eat very nutritious (有营养的) foods, who feels OKbut exercises only occasionally, who goes to work every day, but is not anoutstanding worker, who drinks a few beers at home most nights but doesnot drive while drunk, and who has no chest pains or abnormal bloodcounts, but sleeps a lot and often feels tired. This person is not ill. Hemay not even be at risk for any particular disease. But we can imaginethat this person could be a lot healthier.
The field of medicine has not traditionally distinguished betweensomeone who is merely "not ill" and someone who is in excellent healthand pays attention to the body's special needs. Both types have simplybeen called "well". In recent years, however, some health specialistshave begun to apply the terms "well" and "wellness" only to those whoare actively striving to maintain and improve their health. People whoare well are concerned with nutrition and exercise, and they make apoint of monitoring their body's condition. Most important, perhaps,people who are well take active responsibility for all matters related totheir health. Even people who have a physical disease or handicap (缺陷) may be "well", in this new sense, if they make an effort to maintainthe best possible health they can in the face of their physical limitations.
"Wellness" may perhaps best be viewed not as a state that people canachieve, but as an ideal that people can strive for. People who are wellare likely to be better able to resist disease and to fight disease when itstrikes. And by focusing attention on healthy ways of living the conceptof wellness can have a beneficial impact on the ways in which people facethe challenges of daily life.
Today medical care is placing more stress on_________.

A.keeping people in a healthy physical condition
B.monitoring patients' body functions
C.removing people's bad living habits
D.ensuring people's psychological well-being

题目:

By saying "My dog could tell the difference between bottled and tapwater" (Lines 5-6, Para.2),yon Wiesenberger wants to convey themessage that __________.

A.plain tap water is certainly unfit for drinking
B.bottled water is clearly superior to tap water
C.bottled water often appeals more to dogs' taste
D.dogs can usually detect a fine difference in taste

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
Reaching new peaks of popularity in North America is IcebergWater, which is harvested from icebergs off the coast of Newfound land,Canada.
Arthur yon Wiesenberger, who carries the title Water Master, isone of the few water critics in North America. As a boy, he spent timein the larger cities of Italy, France and Switzerland, where bottled wateris consumed daily. Even then, he kept a water journal, noting the brandshe liked best. "My dog could tell the difference between bottled and tapwater," he says.
But is plain tap water all that bad Not at all. In fact, New York'smunicipal water for more than a century was called the champagne of tapwater and until recently considered among the best in the world in termsof both taste and purity. Similarly, a magazine in England found that tapwater from the Thames River tasted better than several leading brands ofbottled water that were 400 times more expensive.
Nevertheless, soft-drink companies view bottled water as the nextbattle-ground for market share--this despite the fact that over 25 percentof bottled water comes from tap water: PepsiCo's Aquafina and Coca-Cola's Dasani are both purified tap water rather than spring water.
As diners thirst for leading brands, bottlers and restaurateurs salivate(垂涎) over the profits. A restaurant's typical mark-up on wine is 100 to150 percent, whereas on bottled water it's often 300 to 500 percent. Butsince water is much cheaper than wine, and many of the fancier brandsaren't available in stores, most diners don't notice or care.
As a result, some restaurants are turning up the pressure to sellbottled water. According to an article in The Wall Street Journal, someof the more shameless tactics include placing attractive bottles on thetable for a visual sell, listing brands on the menu without prices, andpouring bottled water without even asking the diners if they want it.
Regardless of how it's sold, the popularity of bottled water taps intoour desire for better health, our wish to appear cultivated, and even alonging for lost purity.
What do we know about Iceberg Water from the passage

A.It is a kind of iced water.
B.It is just plain tap water.
C.It is a kind of bottled water.
D.It is a kind of mineral water.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
I've been writing for most of my life. The book Writing WithoutTeachers introduced me to one distinction and one practice that hashelped my writing processes tremendously. The distinction is between thecreative mind and the critical mind. While you need to employ both toget to a finished result, they cannot work in parallel no matter how muchwe might like to think so.
Trying to criticize writing on the fly is possibly the single greatestbarrier to writing that most of us encounter. If you are listening to that5th grade English teacher correct your grammar while you are trying tocapture a fleeting (稍纵即逝的) thought, the thought will die. If youcapture the fleeting thought and simply share it with the world in rawform, no one is likely to understand. You must learn to create first andthen criticize if you want to make writing the tool for thinking that it is.
The practice that can help you past your learned bad habits of tryingto edit as you write is what Elbow calls "free writing." In free writing,the objective is to get words down on paper non-stop, usually for 15-20minutes. No stopping, no going back, no criticizing~ The goal is to getthe words flowing. As the words begin to flow, the ideas will come outfrom the shadows and let themselves be captured on your notepad or yourscreen.
Now you have raw materials that you can begin to work with usingthe critical mind that you've persuaded to sit on the side and watchquietly. Most likely, you will believe that this will take more time than
you actually have and you will end up staring blankly at the page as thedeadline draws near.
Instead of staring at a blank screen start filling it with words nomatter how bad. Halfway through your available time, stop and reworkyour raw writing into something closer to finished product. Move backand forth until you run out of time and the final result will most likely befar better than your current practices.
When the author says the creative mind and the critical mind "cannotwork in parallel" (Line 5, Para.1) in the writing process, he means_________.

A.no one can be both creative and critical
B.they cannot be regarded as equally important
C.they are in constant conflict with each other
D.one cannot use them at the same time

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
Universities Branch Out
A. As never before in their long history, universities have becomeinstruments of national competition as well as instruments of peace.They are the place of the scientific discoveries that move economiesforward, and the primary means of educating the talent required toobtain and maintain competitive advantage. But at the same time,the opening of national borders to the flow of goods, services,information and especially people has made universities a powerfulforce for global integration, mutual understanding and geopoliticalstability.
B. In response to the same forces that have driven the world economy,universities have become more self-consciously global: seekingstudents from around the world who represent the entire range ofcultures and values, sending their own students abroad to preparethem for global careers, offering courses of study that address thechallenges of an interconnected world and collaborative (合作的)research programs to advance science for the benefit of allhumanity.
C. Of the forces shaping higher education none is more sweeping thanthe movement across borders. Over the past three decades thenumber of students leaving home each year to study abroad hasgrown at an annual rate of 3.9 percent, from 800000 in 1975 to 2.5million in 2004. Most travel from one developed nation to another,but the flow from developing to developed countries is growingrapidly. The reverse flow, from developed to developing countries,is on the rise, too. Today foreign students earn 30 percent of thedoctoral degrees awarded in the United States and 38 percent ofthose in the United Kingdom. And the number crossing borders forundergraduate study is growing as well, to 8 percent of theundergraduates at America's best institutions and 10 percent of allundergraduates in the U.K. In the United States,20 percent of thenewly hired professors in science and engineering are foreign-born,and in China many newly hired faculty members at the top researchuniversities received their graduate education abroad.
D. Universities are also encouraging students to spend some of theirundergraduate years in another country. In Europe, more than140000 students participate in the Erasmus program each year,taking courses for credit in one of 2200 participating institutionsacross the continent. And in the United States, institutions arehelping place students in summer internships (实习) abroad toprepare them for global careers. Yale and Harvard have led theway, offering every undergraduate at least one international study orinternship opportunity--and providing the financial resources tomake it possible.
E.Globalization is also reshaping the way research is done. One newtrend involves sourcing portions of a research program to anothercountry. Yale professor and Howard Hughes Medical Instituteinvestigator Tian Xu directs a research center focused on thegenetics of human disease at Shanghai's Fudan University, incollaboration with faculty colleagues from both schools. TheShanghai center has 95 employees and graduate students working in a4300-square-meter laboratory facility. Yale faculty,postdoctorsand graduate students visit regularly and attend videoconferenceseminars with scientists from both campuses. The arrangementbenefits both countries; Xu's Yale lab is more productive, thanks tothe lower costs of conducting research in China, and Chinesegraduate students, postdoctors and faculty get on-the-job trainingfrom a world-class scientist and his US team.
F.As aresult of its strength in science, the United States hasconsistently led the world in the commercialization of major newtechnologies, from the mainframe computer and the integratedcircuit of the 1960s to the Internet infrastructure (基础设施) andapplications software of the 1990s. The link between university-based science and industrial application is often indirect butsometimes highly visible: Silicon Valley was intentionally created byStanford University, and Route 128 outside Boston has long housedcompanies spun off from MIT and Harvard. Around the world,governments have encouraged copying of this model, perhaps mostsuccessfully in Cambridge, England, where Microsoft and scores ofother leading software and biotechnology companies have set upshop around the university.
G.For all its success, the United States remains deeply hesitant aboutsustaining the research university model. Most politicians recognizethe link between investment in science and national economicstrength, but support for research funding has been unsteady. Thebudget of the National Institutes of Health doubled between 1998and 2003, but has risen more slowly than inflation since then.Support for the physical sciences and engineering barely kept pacewith inflation during that same period. The attempt to make up lostground is welcome, but the nation would be better served by steady,predictable increases in science funding at the rate of long-term GDPgrowth, which is on the order of inflation plus 3 percent per year.
H.American politicians have great difficulty recognizing that admittingmore foreign students can greatly promote the national interest byincreasing international understanding. Adjusted for inflation,public funding for international exchanges and foreign-languagestudy is well below the levels of 40 years ago. In the wake ofSeptember 11, changes in the visa process caused a dramatic declinein the number of foreign students seeking admission to USuniversities, and a corresponding surge in enrollments in Australia,Singapore and the U.K. Objections from American university andbusiness leaders led to improvements in the process and a reversal ofthe decline, but the United States is still seen by many asunwelcoming to international students.
I.Most Americans recognize that universities contribute to the nation'swell-being through their scientific research, but many fear thatforeign students threaten American competitiveness by taking theirknowledge and skills back home. They fail to grasp that welcomingforeign students to the United States has two important positiveeffects: first, the very best of them stay in the States and—likeimmigrants throughout history--strengthen the nation; and second,foreign students who study in the United States become ambassadorsfor many of its most cherished (珍视) values when they returnhome. Or at least they understand them better. In America aselsewhere, few instruments of foreign policy are as effective inpromoting peace and stability as welcoming international universitystudents.
Over the past three decades, the enrollment of overseas students hasincreased at an annual rate of 3.9 percent.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
E1 Nino is the name given to the mysterious and often unpredictablechange in the climate of the world. This strange 1 happens everyfive to eight years. It starts in the Pacific Ocean and is thought to becaused by a failure in the trade winds (信风), which affects the oceancurrents driven by these winds. As the trade winds lessen in 2, the ocean temperatures rise, causing the Peru current flowing in from theeast to warm up by as much as 5℃.
The warming of the ocean has far-reaching effects. The hot, humid(潮湿的) air over the ocean causes severe 3 thunderstorms. Therainfall is increased across South America, 4 floods to Peru. Inthe West Pacific, there are droughts affecting Australia and Indonesia.So while some parts or the world prepare for heavy rains and floods,other parts face drought, poor crops and 5 .
E1 Nino usually lasts for about 18 months.The 1982-1983 E1 Ninobrought the most 6 weather in modern history. Its effect wasworldwide and it left more than 2000 people dead and caused over eightbillion pounds 7 of damage. The 1990 E1 Nino lasted until June1995. Scientists 8 this to be the longest E1 Nino for 2000 years.
Nowadays, weather experts are able to forecast when an E1 Ninowill 9, but they are still not 10 sure what leads to it orwhat affects how strong it will be.it will be.
A. estimate
B. strength
C. deliberately
D. notify
E.tropical
F.phenomenon
G.stable
H.attraction
I.completely
J.destructive
K.starvation
L.bringing
M.exhaustion
N.worth
O.Strike
第(1)题选

题目:

《清明上河图》(Along the River During the Qingming Festival)描绘的是北宋都城汴京在清明时节繁华热闹的景象。清明上河是当时的民间习俗,人们可以借以参加商贸活动,就像今天的节日集会一样。全图规模宏大,结构严谨,大致分为三个段落第一段是市郊景画,第二段是汴河,第三段是城内街市。画家通过对汴京城内建筑、商贸、交通、运输几个方面的描绘,再现了北宋都城的繁华和发达。

题目:

假日经济的现象表明中国人的消费观念正在发生巨大的变化。根据统计数据,中国消费者的消费需求正在从基本的生活必需品转向对休闲、舒适和个人发展的需求。同时,中国人的消费观在蓬勃发展的假日经济中正变得成熟。因此,产品结构应做相应的调整来适应社会的发展。另一方面,服务质量要改善,以满足人们提高生活质量的要求。

题目:

Should Private Cars Be Encouraged in China
1.小汽车进入中国家庭后给人们带来了舒适和方便
2.小汽车也给人们带来了许多问题
3.我的看法

题目:

孔子(公元前551~公元前479.,中国历史上伟大的教育家、思想家和政治家,儒家思想(Confucianism.的创始人。他创办私学,招收并教育弟子(disciple.,创立了以“仁”为核心的道德学说。相传他有弟子三千,曾带领部分弟子周游列国。孔子的言论及其与弟子们的对话被汇集编纂成《论语》(The Analects ofConfucius.,千古传诵。自汉代以后,儒家思想成为两千多年来中华传统文化的主流,影响极为深远。

题目:

___ is the factor that limits women's access to careers in mathematically intensive sciences.

A.Lack of ability
B.Culture
C.Effort
D.Course pattern

题目:

The word "liberate" (Line 5, Paragraph 2.could be best replaced by ___

A.emancipate
B.discharge
C.surrender
D.save

题目:

Our brain can make two independent memories of an event through language and action.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题

Want to Learn Quicker Use Your Body

A) Ever dealt with a problem Picked up a new skill Grasped a difficult concept The language of learning is full of references to parts of the body outside the brain. Researchers discover that learning is easier, quicker and more long-lasting if lessons involve the body as well as the mind--whether it's gesturing with the arms or moving around a room. Can these insights enhance teaching and learning in the future And should it inform the way technology is employed in the classroom
B) "In the past, people have argued that as we learn we become more able to think abstractly," says Andrew Manches, a psychologist at the University of Edinburgh in the UK. Conventional thinking might suggest that teachers should help children get rid of physical objects and body gestures to prepare them for the adult world.But in truth, the physical world never really leaves our thinking. For example, when we process verbs such as lick, kick and pick, medical scanners show that the parts of our brain that control the muscles in our face, legs and hands, respectively, light up with activity. And even the most abstract of concepts may have grounding in the real word.
C ) Body and mind—his theory is called embodied cognition( 体验认知), and it suggests that what goes on in our minds stems from our actions and interactions with the world around us. It means that encouraging children to think and learn in a purely abstract way might actually make lessons harder for them to understand and remember. Science is beginning to back up the idea that actions really might speak louder than words in the classroom.
D) Spencer Kelly, a psychologist at Colgate University in Hamilton, New York, has found that people spend three times as much time gesturing when they think it is particularly important that they get a message across, suggesting that even at the subconscious level, we appreciate the communicative value of our body language. Studies show that young children learn more if their teacher uses gestures when explaining a concept.
E) Meanwhile, Susan Wagner Cook, a psychologist at the University of Iowa in Iowa City, has found that children pick up new concepts more effectively if they are taught to mirror and repeat the gestures their teacher uses, and that lessons involving words and gestures live longer in a student's memory than lessons using words alone.
F) There's a place for technology--particularly with the rise of gesture-recognition devices like the Nintendo Wii(任天堂游戏机), Microsoft's Kinect add-on (外设设备) for the Xbox and touchscreen tablet PCs. Resear-chers at the University of California, Berkeley, turned two Wii-mote video game controllers into a device that helps children visualize equivalence ratios (等值比)—for instance, understanding how if one plant grows twice as fast as another, the difference between their respective heights will become larger over time. This can be a tricky concept for children to understand. When asked to use their hands to represent the different growth rates, some students will place one hand slightly higher than the other, but then raise both hands at the same speed. The Berkeley team's device gives the children instant feedback, helping them work out when their hand gestures correctly match what would happen as the two plants grow. Afterwards, almost all students say that they actually understand why moving their hands at different speeds is the correct response.
G) The Kinect sensor, meanwhile, is being used in studies to help children learn to more accurately map numbers onto physical space—a simple skill but one that is fundamental to our understanding of mathematics. Most people know, for instance, to place the number 50 exactly midway along a line marked "0" at one end and "100" at the other. Researchers at Eberhard Karls University in Tuebingen, Germany, found that seven-year-olds can place numbers along such a line more accurately if they physically walk the line on the floor'—with their motion captured and analysed by the Kinect sensor—than if they use a mouse to interact with a computer screen representation of the line. Manches has begun exploring whether Kinect offers a way to re-imagine traditional children's blocks(积木). The technology allows children to pick up and manipulate virtual blocks on the screen using the same gestures they would use to play with real blocks--but the virtual blocks can do new things like change colour as they are pulled apart into smaller units, giving children fresh ideas about the way numbers can be broken down.
H) In light of all this, it's tempting to conclude that teachers, and their students, should be jumping up and down, or waving their arms about during lessons. Manches, however, advises caution. The trouble is, science has not quite worked out exactly how the relationship between body and mind effects work. "You can't jump into the prediction and intervention stage too early," says Manches.
I) This isn't to say there aren't working theories for what's going on, particularly when it comes to understanding why gesturing helps store information more firmly in the mind, says Cook. The lessons we learn at school usually involve declarative memory( 陈述性记忆)--these are the facts that we can consciously recall or "declare" at a later date. But some of our memories are non-declarative--things we can remember without really being able to explain why.
J)The classic example is how we never really forget how to ride a bike. Physical movements seem to be particularly suitable fodder(素材) for making non-declarative memories, and so by both speaking and gesturing, we may encourage our brains to make two independent memories of an event, boosting our chances of remembering the event later.
K) Even though researchers like Manches and Cook remain reluctant to set out prescriptive guidelines for teachers, their caution is beginning to weaken. "Five years ago I might have said there's potential for real harm in giving teachers instructions from this research," says Cook. Today, she is less worried of the potential to do damage—in part because none of her studies to-date has uncovered any evidence of side effects.
Based on the theory of embodied cognition, science is starting to pay more attention to the importance ofactions in the classroom.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
Robot Management
A.Robots have been the stuff of science fiction for so long that it is surprisingly hard to see them as the stuff ofmanagement fact. A Czech playwright, Karel Capek, gave them their name in 1920 (from the Slavonic wordfor "work".. An American writer, Isaac Asimov, confronted them with their most memorable dilemmas.Hollywood turned them into superheroes and super villains. When some film critics drew up lists ofHollywood's 50 greatest good guys and 50 greatest baddies, the only character to appear on both lists was arobot, the Terminator.
B .It is time for management thinkers to catch up with science-fiction writers. Robots have been doing auxiliaryjobs on production lines since the 1960s. The world already has more than lm industrial robots. There is nowan acceleration in the rates at which they are becoming both cleverer and cheaper: an explosive combination.Robots are learning to interact with the world around them. Their ability to see things is getting ever closer tothat of humans, as is their capacity to ingest information and act on it. Tomorrow's robots will increasinglytake on delicate, complex tasks. And instead of being imprisoned in cages to stop them colliding with people,they will be free to wander.
C.America's armed forces have blazed a trail here. They now have no fewer than 12,000 robots serving in theirranks. Peter Singer, of the Brookings Institution, a think-tank ( 智囊团., says mankind' s 5,000-year monopolyon the fighting of war is breaking down. Recent additions to the battlefield include tiny "insects" that performreconnaissance (侦查 .missions and giant "dogs" to terrify enemies. The Pentagon is also working on theEATR, a robot that fuels itself by eating whatever biomass ( 生物量 .it finds around it.
D.But the civilian world cannot be far behind. Who better to clean sewers or suck up nuclear waste than theseremarkable machines The Japanese have made surprisingly little use of robots to clear up after the recentearthquake, given their world leadership in this area. They say that they had the wrong sort of robots in thewrong places. But they have issued a global call for robotic assistance and are likely to put more robots towork shortly.
E.As robots advance into the service industries they are starting to look less like machines and more like livingcreatures. The Paro (made by/LIST, a Japanese research agency.is shaped like a baby seal and responds toattention. Honda's robot, ASIMO, is humanoid and can walk, talk and respond to commands.
F.Until now executives have largely ignored robots, regarding them as an engineering rather than a managementproblem. This cannot go on: robots are becoming too powerful and ubiquitous (无处不在的.. Companies mayneed to rethink their strategies as they gain access to these new sorts of workers. Do they really need tooutsource production to China, for example, when they have clever machines that work ceaselessly withoutpay They certainly need to rethink their human-resources policies--starting by questioning whether theyshould have departments devoted to purely human resources.
G.The first issue is how to manage the robots themselves. Asimov laid down the basic rule in 1942: no robotshould harm a human. This rule has been reinforced by recent technological improvements: robots are nowmuch more sensitive to their surroundings and can be instructed to avoid hitting people. But the Pentagon'splans make all this a bit more complicated: many of its robots will be, in essence, killing machines.
H.A second question is how to manage the homo side of homo-robo relations. Workers have always worded that new technologies will take away their livelihoods, ever since the original Luddites' fears about mechanisedlooms. That worry takes on a particularly intense form when the machines come with a human face: Capek'splay that gave robots their name depicted a world in which they initially brought lots of benefits but eventuallyled to mass unemployment and discontent. Now, the arrival of increasingly humanoid automatons inworkplaces, in an era of high unemployment, is bound to provoke a reaction.
I.So, companies will need to work hard to persuade workers that robots are productivity-enhancers, not just job-eating aliens. They need to show employees that the robot sitting alongside them can be more of a helpmatethan a threat. Audi has been particularly successful in introducing industrial robots because the car makerasked workers to identify areas where robots could improve performance and then gave those workers jobsoverseeing the robots. Employers also need to explain that robots can help preserve manufacturing jobs in therich world: one reason why Germany has lost fewer such jobs than Britain is that it has five times as manyrobots for every 10,000 workers.
J.These two principles---don't let robots hurt or frighten people--are relatively simple. Robot scientists aretackling more complicated problems as robots become more sophisticated. They are keen to avoid hierarchies(层级.among rescue-robots (because the loss of the leader would render the rest redundant.. So they areusing game theory to make sure the robots can communicate with each other in egalitarian (平等.ways. Theyare keen to avoid duplication between robots and their human handlers. So they are producing morecomplicated mathematical formulae in order that robots can constantly adjust themselves to human intentions.This suggests that the world could be on the verge of a great management revolution: making robots behavelike humans rather than the 20th century's preferred option, making humans behave like robots.
Tomorrow's robots will be free to move around rather than being locked up in cages so as not to hurt people.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
How Your Language Affects Your Wealth and Health
A. Does the language we speak determine how healthy and rich we will be New research by Keith Chen of YaleBusiness School suggests so. The structure of languages affects our judgments and decisions about the futureand this might have dramatic long-term consequences.
B. There has I seen a lot Of research into how we deal with the future. For example, the famous marshmallow (棉花糖.studies of Walter Mischel and colleagues showed that being able to resist temptation is predictive of futuresuccess. Four-year-old kids were given a marshmallow and were told that if they do not eat that marshmallowand wait for the experimenter to come back, they will get two marshmallows instead of one. Follow-up studiesshowed that the kids who were able to wait for the bigger future reward became more successful young adults.
C. Resisting our impulses for immediate pleasure is often the only way to attain the outcomes that are importantto us. We want to keep a slim figure but we also want that last slice of pizza. We want a comfortableretirement, but we also want to drive that dazzling car, go on that dream vacation, or get those gorgeous shoes.Some people are better at delaying gratification (满足. than others. Those people have a better chance ofaccumulating wealth and keeping a healthy life style. They are less likely to be impulse buyers or smokers, orto engage in unsafe sex.
D. Chen's recent findings suggest that an unlikely factor, language, strongly affects our future-oriented behavior. Some languages strongly distinguish the present and the future. Other languages only weakly distinguish thepresent and the future. Chen's recent research suggests that people who speak languages that weaklydistinguish the present and the future are better prepared for the future. They accumulate more wealth and theyare better able to maintain their health. The way these people conceptualize the future is similar to the waythey conceptualize the present. As a result, the future does not feel very distant and it is easier for them to actin accordance with their future interests.
E. Different languages have different ways of talking about the future. Some languages, such as English, Korean,and Russian, require their speakers to refer to the future explicitly ( 明确的.. Every time English-speakers talkabout the future, they have to use future markers such as "will" or "going to." In other languages, such asMandarin, Japanese, and German, future markers are not obligatory (强制性的.. The future is often talkedabout similar to the way present is talked about and the meaning is understood from the context. A Mandarinspeaker who is going to go to a seminar might say "Woqu ting jiangzuo," which translates to "I go listenseminar." Languages such as English constantly remind their speakers that future events are distant. Forspeakers of languages such as Mandarin future feels closer. As a consequence, resisting immediate impulsesand investing for the future is easier for Mandarin speakers.
F. Chert analyzed inpidual-level data from 76 developed and developing countries. This data includes people'seconomic decisions, such as whether they saved any money last year, the languages they speak at home,demographics (人口统计资料., and cultural factors such as "saving is an important cultural value for me."He also analyzed inpidual-level data on people's retirement assets, smoking and exercising habits, andgeneral health in older age. Lastly, he analyzed national-level data that includes national savings rates, countryGDP and GDP growth rates, country demographics, and proportions of people speaking different languages.
G. People's savings rates are affected by various factors such as their income, education level, age, religiousconnection, their countries' legal systems, and their cultural values. After those factors were accounted for, theeffect of language on people’s savings rates turned out to be big.Speaking a language that has obligatoryfuture markers,such as English,makes people 30 percent less likely to save money for the future.This effectis as large as the effect of unemployment.Being unemployed decreases the likelihood of saving by about 30 percent as well.
H.Similar analyses showed that speaking a language that does not have obligatory future markers,such asMandarin,makes people accumulate more retirement assets,smoke less,exercise more,and generally behealthier in older age.Countries’national savings rates are also affected by language.Having a larger proportion of people speaking languages mat does not have obligatory future markers makes national savingsrates higher.
I. At a more practical level,researchers have been looking for ways to help people act in accordance with theirlong-term interests.Recent findings suggest that making the future feel closer to the present might improvefuture-oriented behavior.For instance,researchers recently presented people with renderings of their futureselves made using age-progression algorithms(算法.that forecast how physical appearances would changeover time.One group of participants saw a digital representation of their current selves in a virtual mirror,andthe other group saw an age-morphed version of their future selves.Those participants who saw the age-morphed version of their future selves allocated more money toward a hypothetical savings account.Theintervention brought people’s future to the present and as a result they saved more for the future。
J.Chen’s research shows that language structures our future-related thoughts.Language has been used before toalter time perception with surprising effects.Ellen Langer and colleagues famously improved older people’sphysical health by simple interventions including asking them to talk about the events of twenty years ago as ifit they were happening now..Talking about the past as if it were the present changed people’s mindsets andtheir mindsets affected their physical states.Chen’s research points at the possibility that the way we talkabout the future can shape our mindsets.Language can move the future back and forth in our mental spaceand this might have dramatic influences on our judgments and decisions.
Usually,preventing ourselves from enjoying immediate pleasure impulsively is the only way to achieve theoutcomes that are important to us.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
Green Growth
A.The enrichment of previously poor countries is the most inspiring development
of our time. It is also worrying.The environment is already under strain. What will happen when the global population rises from 7 billiontoday to 9.3 billion in 2050, as demographers(人口统计学家.expect, and a growing proportion of these peoplecan afford goods that were once reserved for the elite Can the planet support so much economic activity
B.Many policymakers adopt a top-down and Westem-centric approach to such planetary problems. They discussambitious regulations in global forums, or look to giant multinationals and well-heeled (富有的.NGOs to setan example. But since most people live in the emerging world, it makes sense to look at what successfulcompanies there are doing to make growth more sustainable.
C.A new study by the World Economic Forum (WEF.and the Boston Consulting Group (BCG)identifies 16 emerging-market firms that they say are turning eco-consciousness into a source of competitive advantage.These highly profitable companies (which the study calls "the new sustainability champions".are usinggreenery to reduce costs, motivate workers and forge relationships. Their home-grown ideas will probably beeasier for their peers to copy than anything cooked up in the West.
D.The most outstanding quality of these companies is that they turn limitations (of resources, laborand infrastructure.into opportunities. Thus, India's Shree Cement, which has long suffered from watershortages, developed the world's most water-efficient method for making cement, in part by using air-coolingrather than water-cooling. Manila Water, a utility in the Philippines, reduced the amount of water it was losing,through wastage and illegal tapping, from 63% in 1997 to 12% in 2010 by making water affordable for the poor.Broad Group, a Chinese maker of air conditioners, taps the waste heat from buildings to power its machines. Zhangzidao Fishery Group, a Chinese aquaculture (水产养殖.company, recycles uneaten fish feed to fertilizecrops.
E.Setting green goals is a common practice. Sekem, an Egyptian food producer, set itself the task of reclaiming(开垦.desert land through organic farming. Florida Ice & Farm, a Costa Rican food and drink company, hasadopted strict standards for the amount of water it can consume in producing drinks.
F. These firms measure themselves by their greenery, too. Florida Ice & Farm, for example, links 60% of itsboss's pay to the triple bottom line of "people, planet and profit". The sustainability champions also encouragetheir workers to come up with green ideas. Natura, a Brazilian cosmetics company, gives bonuses to staff whofind ways to reduce the firm's impact on the environment. Masisa, a Chilean forestry company, invitesemployees to "imagine unimaginable businesses" aimed at poorer consumers. Woolworths, a South Africanretailer, claims that many of its best green ideas have come from staff, not bosses.
G.In emerging markets it is hard for companies to stick to one specialism, because they have to worry about somany wider problems, from humble infrastructure to unreliable supply chains. So the sustainability championsseek to shape the business environment in which they operate. They lobby (游说.regulators: Grupo Balbo, aBrazilian organic-sugar producer, is working with the Brazilian government to establish a certification systemfor organic products. They form partnerships with governments and NGOs. Kenya's Equity Bank has formedan alliance with groups such as The International Fund for Agricultural Development to reduce its risks whenlending to smallholders. Natura has worked with its suppliers to produce sustainable packaging, including anew "green" plastic derived from sugar cane.
H.The firms also work hard to reach and educate poor consumers, often sacrificing short-term profits to createfuture markets. Masisa organizes local carpenters into networks and connects them to low-income furniturebuyers. Broad Group has developed a miniature device for measuring air pollution that can fit into mobilephones. Jain Irrigation, an Indian maker of irrigation systems, uses dance and song to explain the benefits of drip irrigation to farmers who can't read. Suntech, a Chinese solar-power company, has established a low-carbon museum to celebrate ways of reducing carbon-dioxide emissions.
Rich because green, or green because rich
I. One could quibble (争辩.with BCG's analysis. Phil Rosenzweig of Switzerland's LMD business school hasargued that management writers are prone to "the halo effect": they treat the temporary success of a companyas proof that it has discovered some eternal principle of good management. The fact that some successfulcompanies have embraced greenery does not prove that greenery makes a firm successful. Some fin-ms, havingprospered, find they can afford to splurge(挥霍.on greenery. Some successful firms pursue greenery forpublic-relations purposes. And for every sustainable emerging champion, there are surely 100 firms that haveprospered by belching(喷出.fumes into the air or pumping toxins into rivers.
J. Nonetheless, the central message of the WEF-BCG study--that some of the best emerging-world companiesare combining profits with greenery--is thought-provoking. Many critics of environmentalism argue that it isa rich-world luxury: that the poor need adequate food before they need super-clean air. Some even seegreenery as a rich-world conspiracy(阴谋): the West grew rich by industrializing(and polluting), but nowwants to stop the rest of the world from following suit. The WEF-BCG report demonstrates that such fears areoverblown. Emerging-world companies can be just as green as their Western rivals. Many have found that,when natural resources are scarce and consumers are cash-strapped ( 资金短缺的), greenery can be alucrative(利润丰厚的.business strategy.
An air-conditioner manufacturer uses the waste heat from buildings to supply its machines with power.

题目:

Even in the overcrowded United Kingdom there are large___

A.tracks through the open country
B.areas of country without soil
C.areas of countryside.not developed
D.expanses of land where nobody works

题目:

Inpiduals began to use cameras to take photos with their size becoming smaller and the cost of storing datadeclining.

题目:

The bigger worry comes from those being recorded,not from the ones who hold the cameras.

题目:

Optimists predict that cameras will have more benefits in the future.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
The Recorded World
As cameras become ubiquitous(普遍存在的.and able to identify people,more safeguards on privacy willbe needed.
A.“This season there is something at the seaside worse than sharks,”declared a newspaper in 1890.“It is the amateur photographer.”The invention of the handheld camera shocked the 19th—century society,as did the“Kodak fiends”(柯达狂人.who patrolled beaches snapping sunbathers.
B.More than a century later,amateur photography is once more a troubling issue.Citizens of rich countries have got used to being watched by closed.circuit cameras that guard roads and cities.But as cameras shrink and thecost of storing data falls sharply,it is inpiduals who are taking the pictures.
C.Some 10,000 people are already testing a prototype of Google Glass,a miniature computer worn like eveglasses.It aims to have all the functions of a smartphone in a device put on a person’s nose.Its flexibleframe holds both a camera and a tiny screen,and makes it easy for users to take photos,send messages andsearch for things online.
D.Glass may fail,but a wider revolution is under way.In Russia,where insurance fraud is commonly seen,atleast l million cars already have cameras on their dashboards(仪表盘.that film the road ahead.Police forcesin America are starting to issue officers with video cameras,pinned to their uniforms,which record their
interactions with the public.Collar—cams help anxious cat—lovers watch their wandering pets carefully. Paparazzi(狗仔队.have started to use drones to photograph celebrities in their gardens or on yachts.Hobbyists are even devising clever ways to get cameras into space.
E.Ubiquitous recording can already do a lot of good.Some patients with brain injuries have been given cameraslooking back at images can help them recover their memories.Dash—cams can help resolve insurance claims and encourage people to drive better.Police—cams can discourage criminals from making groundlesscomplaints against police officers and officers from abusing criminals.A British soldier has just been convicted of murdering a wounded Afghan because the act was captured by a colleague’s helmet—camera. Videos showing the line of sight of experienced surgeons and engineers can help train their successors and beused in liability disputes.Lenses linked to computers are reading street—sign sand product labels to partiallysighted people.
F.Optimists see broader benefits ahead.Plenty of people carry activity trackers,worn on the wrist or placed in apocket,to monitor their exercise or sleep patterns;cameras could do the job more effectively,perhaps alsospying on their wearers’diets.“Personal black boxes’’might be able to transmit pictures if their owner fallsvictim to an accident or crime.Tiny cameras trained to recognise faces could become personal digital assistants,making conversations as searchable as documents and e—mails.Already a small band of“life. logger(生活记录器)stored years off ootage(镜头.into databases of“e—memories”.
G.Not everybody will be thrilled by these prospects.A perfect digital memory would probably be a pain, preserving unhappy events as well as cherished ones.Suspicious spouses and employers might feel entitled toreview it.
H.The bigger worry is for those in front of the cameras,not behind them.School bullies already use illegal snapsfrom mobile phones to embarrass their victims.The web is full of secret photos of women,snapped in publicplaces.Wearable cameras will make such immoral photography easier.And the huge,looming issue is the growing sophistication of face-recognition technologies,which are starting to enable businesses andgovernments to get information about inpiduals by searching the billions of images online.The combinationof cameras everywhere---in bars,on streets,in offices,on people’s heads--with the algorithms(算法.run bysocial networks and other service providers that process stored and published images is a powerful and alarming one.We may not be far from a world in which your movements could be tracked all the time.where a stranger walking down the street can immediately identify exactly who you are.
I.Well,we still strongly held beliefs that technological progress should generally be welcomed.not fearedruns up against an even deeper impulse,in favour of liberty.Freedom has to include some fight to privacyifevery move you make is being recorded,liberty is limited.
J.One option is to ban devices that seem annoying.The use of dashboard cameras is forbidden in Austria. Drivers who film the road can face a€10,000($13,400.fine.But banning devices deprives people of their benefits.Society would do better to develop rules about where and how these technologies can be used,just as it learned to cope with the Kodak fiends.
K.For the moment,companies are behaving in a cautious way.Google has banned the use of face—recognition in apps on Glass and its camera is designed to film only in short bursts.Japanese digital camera.makers ensure their products emit a shutter sound every time a picture is taken.Existing laws to control stalking of harassment can be extended to deal with peeping drones.
L.Still,as cameras become smaller,more powerful and ubiquitous,new laws may be needed to Dreserve liberty.Governments should be granted the right to use face—recognition technology only where there is a clear publicgood(identifying a bank robber for instance..When the would.be identifiers are companies or strangers in the street,the starting—point should be that you have the right not to have your identity automatically revealed.The principle is the same as for personal data.Just as Facebook and Google should be forced to establish highdefault settings(默认系统设置.for privacy(which can be reduced at the user's request.,the new camerasand recognition technologies should be regulated so as to let you decide whether you remain anonymous(匿名的.ornot.
M.Silicon Valley emphasises the liberating power of technology--and it is often fight.But the freedom that asmall device gives one person can sometimes take away liberty from another.Liberal politicians have beenlazy about defending the idea of personal space,especially online.The fight should start now.Otherwise.in
the blink of an eye,privacy could be gone.
Google Glass has a flexible frame which carries both a camera and a tiny screen.

题目:

For the forestry, it is necessary to develop an export market in case of a building slump.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
A Logger's Lament
A.My father was a logger. My husband is a logger. My sons will not be loggers. Loggers are anendangered species,but the environmental groups, which so righteously protect endangeredspecies in the animal kingdom, have no concern for their fellow human beings under siege.Loggers are a much misunderstood people, pictured as brutal rapists of our planet, out to denudeit of trees and, as a result, of wildlife.
B.It is time to set the record straight. Loggers take great pride in the old growth trees, the dinosaursof the forests,and would be sorry to see them all cut. There are in the national forests inWashington and Oregon (not to mention other states) approximately 8.5 million acres offorested land, mostly old growth set aside, never to be used for timber production. In order to seeit all, a man would have to spend every weekend and holiday for sixty years looking at timber ata rate of more than one-thousand acres per day. This does not include acreage to be set aside forspotted-owl protection.
C.In addition to this amount of forested land never to be logged, the State of Washington forestPractices Act,established in 1973,specifies that all land that is clear-cut of trees must bereplanted unless converted to some other use. As a tree farmer generally plants more trees peracre than he removes, more trees are being planted than are being cut. In the last twenty years inClark County,Washington,alone,the Department of Natural Resources has overseen theplanting of at least 15000 acres of previously unforested private lands.
D.The term logger applies to the person harvesting trees. A tree farmer is the one who owns theland and determines what is to be done with it. To a tree farmer, clear-cutting is no more than thefinal harvest of that generation of trees. The next spring ,he reforests the land. To the public,clear-cutting is a bad word. Does the public cry shame when a wheat farmer harvests his cropand leaves a field of stubble in place of the beautiful wheat
E.In the Pacific Northwest, in five years, the nearly planted trees will grow taller than the farmer' shead ;in ten years, more than fifteen feet tall; and in twenty to thirty years, the trees will be readyfor the first commercial harvest. The farmer then thins the trees to make room for better growth.In forty to fifty years, he will be ready to clear-cut his farm and replant again. Contrary to publicopinion, it does not take three hundred years to grow a Douglas fir tree to harvestable age.
F.Tree fanning keeps us in wood products. We build with wood, write on paper, and even use theunmentionable in the bathroom. But in order to keep this flow of wood products available, weneed to keep it economically feasible to grow trees. If we restrict the tree-farming practicesbecause we do not like clear-cuts or because some animals might (and probably might not)become extinct, or we restrict markets for the timber by banning log exports or overtax thefarmer,we are creating a situation where the farmer will no longer grow trees. If he cannot makemoney,he will not tree-farm. He will sell his tree farm so that it can grow houses. The land thatgrows trees is the natural resource; the trees are just a crop.
G.Legislation is constantly being introduced to take away the private property rights of tree farmers.They are beleaguered by the public, who believe that any forest belongs to the public. Who, afterall,buys the land and pays the taxes Who invests money in property that will yield them anincome only once every twenty to thirty years Would John Q. Public picnic in a farmer' s wheatfield
H.The tree farmer must have a persified market. When there is a building slump in this country, itis vital to the industry to have an export market. Earlier recessions were devastating to treefarmers until markets were developed overseas. Some trees have little market value in the UnitedStates. The logs China and Korea bought in the late 1980s could not be sold here to cover thecost of delivery.
I.As to the wildlife becoming extinct,that is a joke that is not very funny. Animals thrive inclear-cuts better than in old-growth timber. Look at the Mount St. Helens blast area. Naturecreated an immense clearing and now deer, elk,and other wildlife are returning in numbers.Why Because there is more food growing in an open area than under the tall trees. And as forthe spotted owl, surely the 8.5 million acres set aside is enough to maintain quite a respectableowl population. Numerous recent observations show that the owl lives in second-growth timberas well as in old growth. In the Wenatchee National Forest there are more than two hundred fiftyexamples of spotted owls living in other than old-growth timber. The owl is a tool of theenvironmentalist groups to get what they want: the complete eradication of the species Logger.
J.Consider the scenic value of a preserved old-growth forest versus a managed stand of timber. InGlacier National Park, Montana, for example, which is totally untouched, one sees the old trees,the dead and dying trees, the windfalls crisscrossing the forest. In a managed forest, one sees theolder stands with the forest floor cleared of the dead windfalls, leaving a more parklike setting. Inthe younger stands, one sees the beautiful new trees with their brilliant greens thrusting their topsto the sky and, in the clear-cuts, before the new trees obscure the view, one sees the huckleberrybushes with their luscious-tasting berries, the bright pink of fireweed and deer and elk feeding.True environmentalists husband the land;they do not let the crops stagnate and rot. Tree farming
regenerates the trees and utilizes the product.
Tree farmers need an economical guarantee to keep the wood products markets run smoothly.

题目:

From Para.2, we get to know that photos and videos _________.

A.record most of parents' early lives
B.can help children recall their early memories easily
C.usually take the place of children' s early memories
D.can' t play an important role as early memories do

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
Animals on the Move
A. It looked like a scene from "Jaws" but without the dramatic music. A huge shark was lowly swimming through the water, its tail swinging back and forth like the pendulum of a clock.
B. Suddenly sensitive nerve ending in the shark' s skin picked up vibrations of a struggling fish. The shark was immediately transformed into a deadly, efficient machine of death. With muscles taut, the shark knifed through the water at a rapid speed. In a flash the shark caught its victim, a large fish, in its powerful jaws. Then, jerking its head back and forth, the shark tore huge chunks of flesh from its victim and swallowed them. Soon the action was over.
Moving to Survive
C. In pursuing its prey, the shark demonstrated in a dramatic way the important role of movement, or locomotion, in animals.
D. Like the shark, most animals use movement to find food. They also use locomotion to escape enemies, find a mate, and explore new territories. The methods of locomotion include crawling, hopping, slithering, flying, swimming, or walking.
E) Humans have the added advantage of using their various inventions to move about in just about any kind of environment. Automobiles, rockets, and submarines transport humans from deep oceans to as far away as the moon. However, for other animals movement came about naturally through millions of years of evolution. One of the most successful examples of animal locomotion is that of the shark. Its ability to quickly zero in on its prey has always impressed scientists. But it took a detailed study by Duke University marine biologists S. A. Wainwright, F. Vosburgh, and J. H. Hebrank to find out how the sharks did it. In their study the scientists
observed sharks swimming in a tank at Marine land in Saint Augustine, Fla. Movies were taken of the sharks' movements and analyzed. Studies were also made of shark skin and muscle.
Skin Is the Key
F. The biologists discovered that the skin of the shark is the key to the animal's high efficiency in swimming through the water. The skin contains many fibers that crisscross like the inside of a belted radial tire. The fibers are called collagen fibers. These fibers can either store or release large amounts of energy depending on whether the fibers are relaxed or taut. When the fibers are stretched, energy is stored in them the way energy is stored in the string of a bow when pulled tight. When the energy is released, the fibers become relaxed.
G. The Duke University biologists have found that the greatest stretching occurs where the shark bends its body while swimming. During the body's back and forth motion, fibers along the outside part of the bending body stretch greatly. Much potential energy is stored in the fibers. This energy is released when the shark' s body snaps back the other way.
H. As energy is alternately stored and released on both sides of the animal's body, the tail whips strongly back and forth. This whip-like action propels the animal through the water like a living bullet.
Source of Energy
I. What causes the fibers to store so much energy In finding the answer the Duke University scientists learned that the shark' s similarity to a belted radial tire doesn' t stop with the skin. Just as a radial tire is inflated by pressure, so, too, is the area just under the shark's collagen "radials". Instead of air pressure, however, the pressure in the shark may be due to the force of the blood pressing on the collagen fibers.
J. When the shark swims slowly, the pressure on the fibers is relatively low. The fibers are more relaxed, and the shark is able to bend its body at sharp angles. The animal swims this way when looking around for food or just swimming. However, when the shark detects an important food source, some fantastic involuntary changes take place.
K. The pressure inside the animal may increase by 10 times. This pressure change greatly stretches the fibers, enabling much energy to be stored.
L. This energy is then transferred to the tail, and the shark is off. The rest of the story is predictable.
Dolphin Has Speed Record
M. Another fast marine animal is the dolphin. This seagoing mammal has been clocked at speeds of 32 kilometers (20 miles) an hour. Biologists studying the dolphin have discovered that, like the shark, the animal' s efficient locomotion can be traced to its skin. A dolphin' s skin is made up in such a way that it offers very little resistance to the water flowing over it. Normally when a fish or other object moves slowly through the water, the water flows smoothly past the body. This smooth flow is known as laminar flow. However, at faster speeds the water becomes more turbulent along the moving fish. This turbulence muses friction and slows the fish down.
N. In a dolphin the skin is so flexible that it bends and yields to the waviness of the water.
O. The waves, in effect, become tucked into the skin's folds. This allows the rest of the water to move smoothly by in a laminar flow. Where other animals would be slowed by turbulent water at rapid speeds, the dolphin can race through the water at record breaking speeds.
Other Animals Less Efficient
P. Not all animals move as efficiently as sharks and dolphins. Perhaps the greatest loser in locomotion efficiency is the slug. The slug ( 鼻涕虫), which looks like a snail without a shell, lays down a slimy (黏滑的) trail over which it crawls. It uses so much energy producing the slimy mucus (黏液) and crawling over it that a mouse traveling the same distance uses only one twelfth as much energy.
Q. Scientists say that because of the slug' s inefficient use of energy, its lifestyle must be restricted. That is, the animals are forced to confine themselves to small areas for obtaining food and finding proper living conditions. Have humans ever been faced with this kind of problem
Most animals like sharks, use locomotion to escape enemies and find a mate.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
Creative Destruction of Higher Education
A)Higher education is one of the great successes of the welfare country. What was once the privilege ofa few has become a middle-class entitlement, thanks mainly to government support. Some 3.5 million Americans and 5 million Europeans will graduate this summer.In the modern worlduniversities are developing rapidly: China has added nearly 30 million places in 20 years. Yet thebusiness has changed little since Aristotle taught at the Athenian Lyceum (雅典学园 ): young students still gather at a specific time and place to listen to the wisdom of scholars.
B)At present, a revolution has begun, thanks to three forces: rising costs, changingdemand and newtechnology. The result will be the complete change of the university. While the prices of cars,computers and much else have greatly fallen, universities have been able to charge ever more for thesame service because they are protected by public funding and the high value employers place ondegrees. For two decades the cost of going to college in America has risen by 1.6 percentage points more than inflation every year.
C)For most students, the university remains a great deal. The total lifetime income from obtaining acollege degree, in net-present-value (净现值) terms, can increase as much as $590,000. But anincreasing number of students have gone deep into debt, especially the 47% in America and 28% inBritain who do not complete their course. As for them, the degree by no means values for that sumof money. And the government becomes more and more unwilling to fund the university. In Americagovernment funding per student fell by 27% between 2007 and 2012, while average tuition fees,adjusted for inflation, rose by 20%. In Britain, tuition fees close to zero two decades ago can reach$15,000 a year.
D)The second factor resulting in change is the labor market. In the standard model of higher education,people go to university in their 20s. A degree is an entry ticket to the professional classes. Butautomation is beginning to have the same effect on white-collar jobs as it has on blue-collar ones.According to a study from Oxford University,47% of occupations are at risk of being automated inthe next few decades. As innovation wipes out some jobs and changes others, people will need totop up their human capital all through their lives.
E) By themselves, these two forces would be pushing change. A third--technology--ensures it. Theinternet, which has turned businesses from newspapers through music to book sale upside down,will turn over higher education. Now the MOOC, or "Massive Open Online Course", is offeringstudents the chance to listen to star lecturers and get a degree for a fraction of the cost of attendinga university. MOOCs started in 2008; however, they have so far failed to live up to their promise.Largely because there is no formal system of accreditation (认证), drop-out rates have been high.But this is changing as private investors and existing universities are drawn in。ne provider,Coursera, claims over 8 million registered users. Though its courses are free, it received its first $1million in incomes last year after introducing the option to pay a fee of between $ 30 and $100 tohave course results certified. Another, Udacity, has teamed up with AT&T and Georgia Tech to offeran online master's degree in computing, at less than a third of the cost of the traditional version.Harvard Business School will soon offer an online "pre-MBA" for $1,500. Starbucks has offered tohelp pay for its staff to take online degrees with Arizona State University.
F) MOOCs will destroy different universities in different ways. Not all will suffer。Oxford and Harvardcould benefit. People of great ambition will always want to go to the best universities to meet eachother, and the digital economy tends to favor a few large institutions in charge of its operation. Thebig names will be able to sell their MOOCs around the world. But ordinary universities may sufferthe fate of many newspapers. Were the market for higher education to perform in future as that fornewspapers has done over the past decade or two, universities' incomes would fall by more thanhalf, employment in the industry would drop by nearly 30% and more than 700 institutions wouldshut their doors. The rest would need to adjust themselves to survive.
G) Like all revolutions, the one taking place in higher education will have victims. Many towns andcities rely on universities. In some ways MOOCs will further make the difference both amongstudents and among teachers. The talented students will be much more comfortable than the weakeroutside the structured university environment. Superstar lecturers will earn a fortune, to the angerof their less charming colleagues.
H) Politicians will come under pressure to halt this revolution.They should remember that statespending should benefit society as a whole, not protect professors from competition. The change ofuniversities will benefit many more people than it hurts. Students in the rich world will have accessto higher education at lower cost and greater convenience. The flexible nature of MOOCs appeals toolder people who need training. EdX, another provider, says that the average age of its onlinestudents in America is 31. In the modern world online courses also offer a way for countries likeBrazil to go ahead Western ones and supply higher education much more cheaply. And education hasnow become a global market: the Massachusetts Institute of Technology discovered BattushigMyanganbayar, a remarkably talented Mongolian teenager, through an online electronics course.
I) Rather than maintaining the old model, governments should make the new one work better. Theycan do so by supporting common standards for accreditation. In Brazil, for instance, studentscompleting courses take a government-run exam. In most Western countries it would likewise makesense to have a single, independent organization that certifies exams.Changing an ancientinstitution will not be easy. But it does promise better education for many more people. Rarely haveneed and opportunity so neatly come together.
The introduction of automation affects the labor demand and then brings about the revolution ofhigher education.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
Which Low Carbon Technology Is Now a Reality
A)With fossil fuels expected to supply over 70% of the world's energy needs by 2040, we face some urgent questions: where should efforts be focused in reducing greenhouse gas emissions Whichtechnologies hold the most promise There are a range of low-carbon solutions and given thechallenge, we will need them all. We hear a lot about the advances being made by refreshablesources of energy such as solar, wind and hydro-electricity and these are certainly valuabletechnologies in combating climate change. But how can we really make a major impact in reducingcarbon emissions from large power plants and industrial facilities Enter carbon capture andstorage--or CCS--a technology that captures CO2from fossil fuel production and permanently storesit underground.
B. The aim is to prevent the release of large quantities of CO2into the atmosphere ( from fossil fuel usein power generation and other industries). It is a potential means of relieving the contribution offossil fuel emissions to global warming and ocean acidification (酸化 ). Although CO2has beeninjected into geological formations for several decades for various purposes, including enhanced oilrecovery, the long term storage of CO2is a relatively new concept. The first commercial examplewas Weyburn in 2000. CCS can also be used to describe the scrubbing (涤气 。f CO2fromenvironmental air as a climate engineering technique.
C)In November 2014 the Global CCS Institute released its flagship (核心的) publication--the annualGlobal Status of CCS report.This comprehensive annual update is the prominent source ofinformation on the development of CCS around the world. A lot of work went into updatinginformation in the report, in cooperation with the CCS industry, as there had been quite significantchanges to the CCS landscape in the preceding 12 months. This included the launch of a large-scaleCCS project in the power sector and the beginning of construction of the world's first large-scale CCSproject in the iron and steel sector.
D)Large-scale CCS is now a reality in the power sector with the October 2014 launch of the BoundaryDam Integrated Carbon Capture and Storage Demonstration Project in Saskatchewan, Canada.Boundary Dam is the first commercial CCS plant in the power sector, removing 90 per cent of theCO2produced by electricity generation from lignite ( 褐煤 ) coal at Production Unit No.3 of theSaskPower facility. The captured CO2is primarily used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) at thenearby Weyburn oil field, although amounts are also to be stored in deep geological formations atthe Aquistore site. The success of the Boundary Dam project and the progression of additionalprojects through planning and construction, indicates that CCS technologies for application in thepower sector are "market ready".
E) The next 18 -24 months will see CCS be applied across a range of industries and storage types. Afurther two large-scale CCS power projects are in construction in the US--the Kemper CountyEnergy Facility in Mississippi and the Petra Nova Carbon Capture Project in Texas. Both projects areexpected to be operational in 2016. Also in the US, the Illinois Industrial CCS project planned forlaunch later this year will capture CO2from the Archer Daniels Midland corn-to-ethanol (乙醇) plantin Decatur, Illinois for storage in an onshore deep saline formation. The Abu Dhabi CCS project in the United Arab Emirates is under construction and from 2016 will provide the world's first large-scale demonstration of CO2 capture from iron and steel production.
F) In addition to the 22 large-scale CCS projects currently in operation or construction around theworld,14 projects are in advanced stages of planning, many of which are likely to be in a position tomake a final investment decision over the coming year. Together this group of projects covers arange of applications for CCS and could extend to around ten in the number of large-scale CCSprojects operating in the power sector by the end of the decade. Their progression to operationwould add experience in the dedicated geological storage of CO2 and see operational large-scale CCSactivity extend to China for the first time.
G) 2014 saw commercial application in the power sector become a reality and we can look forward to afurther expansion across a perse range of industries in the coming years. The Global CCS Institutecontinues to cover developments in CCS with up-to-date information, expert insights, workshops,media releases and online seminars. We struggle to make CCS industry information easily accessibleand encourage you to engage with us via our website and regular publications.
H) For detailed information on large-scale CCS projects please visit our online Projects page, which youcan browse or search for projects based on stage, region, industry or capture, transport and storagetype. For the first time the Institute's website contains project descriptions for around 40 lesser scale"remarkable" CCS projects, of which four Japanese "remarkable" CCS projects were the key focusof a chapter in the Global Status of CCS report. For ongoing expert information visit our Insightspage, which is regularly updated with articles from experts in carbon capture and storage, publicengagement, legal issues and policy developments.
I)To join in the discussion you can attend meetings and workshops around the world, and participatein online seminars where you will have the opportunity to listen to and ask questions of a range ofexperts. Visit our Events page to see upcoming meetings, conferences, workshops and seminars.Finally, for a range of up-to-date news and more detailed information, visit our news andpublications sections. We look forward to covering this exciting period in the development of CCSand providing you with the latest information and important issues for the sector.
Carbon dioxide has been stored in geological formations for different purposes; however, its longterm storage is comparatively new.

题目:

Japan is mentioned in the passage to show that _____________.

A.penness to globalization will not cost a nation's cultural identity
B.it was the first Asian country to develop successfully
C.the Meiji Restoration of 1868 was crucial in Japan's history
D.tools and innovations would allow a country to become a major power

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
Green Burials:Thinking Outside the Box
A)When Bonnie Ramey buried her husband two years ago, she knew she didn't want to have a typicalfuneral ceremony at a landscaped cemetery plot. "The commercialization of funerals is getting out ofcontrol," she said. "They get you at your weakest point. In my opinion, they're just ripping off thedead. " Bonnie and her husband, Charles, both nature lovers, spent many hours hiking through the
wooded Appalachian foothills surrounding their home in rural South Carolina. So after Charles died,Bonnie's choice of burial spots was an easy one--down the road from her house is MemorialEcosystems, one of the only places in the United States devoted to environmentally sensitive or"green" burials.
Simple Living, Simple Dying
B)The ideas behind "green" burials are simple. Bodies are not embalmed ( 对尸体进行防腐处理 ).Elaborate caskets made of metal or rare tropical hardwoods are replaced with fabric burial shroudsor simple, biodegradable (生物所能解释的) coffins made of wood or cardboard. Concrete graveliners or vaults that prevent the ground above the coffin from settling are avoided. Perhaps mostsignificantly, in place of carefully trimmed cemetery grounds, native plants and wildflowers are
allowed to flourish, turning the burial ground into a nature preserve. "It preserves the land and thehabitat for the animals," said Ramey. "Our habitat is going quickly, and if we don't preserve it, wewon't have any. " Though there are over 200 green cemeteries in Great Britain, the movement isunknown in the United States. South Carolina, Florida, California and Texas have the only fourgreen cemeteries currently operating in America. Several more green burial facilities are being
planned throughout the country.
Everything 0ld Is New Again
C)"A green burial is not about extra work--it's about not doing extra work," said Joshua Slocum,executive director of the Funeral Consumers Alliance, a group of grassroots organizations interestedin alternatives to the choices offered by the funeral industry. And for advocates of green burials,these aren't unique or unusual ceremonies. "What people need to remember is that this is not new,"said Slocum. "This is a return to what we used to do before the commercial funeral industry came
along. "
D)Indeed, many religious traditions follow the basic principles of green burials. Traditional Jewishburial rites, for example, view embalming as an insult to the dead。Only coffins made completely ofwood are allowed--a metal coffin would be a disrespectful effort to artificially preserve the body.The modern practice of embalming is relatively new. It was largely unknown until the Civil War,when bodies of Union soldiers were often embalmed in preparation for the long trip home from
Southern battlefields. Civil War-area embalming fluids contained poisonous arsenic (砒霜).Formaldehyde (甲醛) is now used as a preservative (防腐剂), but formaldehyde is not without itsrisks.
Does Embalming Cause Cancer
E)Studies by the National Cancer Institute have found that embalmers and anatomists (解剖学家),exposed daily to formaldehyde, are at an increased risk for leukemia and brain cancer. NCIinvestigators concluded that exposure to formaldehyde may particularly cause myeloid (骨髓的)leukemia, though further studies are needed. The International Agency for Research on Cancer listsformaldehyde as a known matter which can cause cancer. It is listed by the Environmental ProtectionAgency as a suspected carcinogen (致癌物质), and the Occupational Health and SafetyAdministration has established a permissible exposure limit of 0.75 parts per million averaged overan 8-hour work shift. Consumers are often confused about state and local requirements for dealingwith dead bodies, and it's generally assumed that health codes require embalming.
Not So, According to Slocum
F) "Embalming is never routinely required by law," said Slocum, adding that cold storage is anacceptable alternative for preserving a body, in addition to being much safer and less invasive. "Nolaw requires a casket," Slocum adds. "And a grave liner or vault--nowhere are they required bylaw. "
Voicing Environmental Concerns
G) In addition to concerns over formaldehyde exposure, some suspect that the preservative may be leaking into groundwater supplies from the millions of bodies buried every year. The fact thatelevated levels of arsenic have been found in the groundwater near Civil War-era cemeteries buttresses the argument.Formaldehyde has been found in groundwater sampling wells near cemeteries. But scientific data are limited, and formaldehyde's long-term health effects in theenvironment are believed to be minor--formaldehyde evaporates readily and is biodegradable.
H) But the environmental effects of cemeteries go beyond formaldehyde. Some land-use planners areconcerned about the impact of turning vast tracts of land into heavily landscaped cemeteries, andthe resulting use of fertilizers, pesticides, water supplies and gasoline-powered landscapingequipment. " Cemeteries just seemed like an ecological wasteland," said David Schroeder, alandscape architect-in-training who specializes in green burial sites. "There was a period of time inthe 1800s when cemeteries were designed like parks," said Schroeder. "They were like a garden.
Now, most are about economics. "
I) As an example of the economics that drive burial practices, Schroeder points to the cemetery vaultsand grave liners that are not required by the law, but are required by most cemeteries. "Cemeteryvaults are designed to keep the ground fiat to make things easier for the lawn mowers," he said. InSchroeder's model for green burials, the topsoil is separated from other layers of soil, and isreturned to its original place after the body is placed in the grave. "The top layers are a biological
hotbed. Seeds and microbes (微生物) are kept near the surface," he said.
J) Preserving undeveloped land was foremost in John Wilkerson's mind when he and his brother createdGlendale Memorial Gardens, a green burial site in north Florida.One of the last wishes ofWilkerson's father was that the family farm be protected from development. Both of his parents arenow buried on the site."It was the best answer we could find to keep this farm from beingdeveloped," said Wilkerson. "It took their death to speed action. They did not like the idea of thecircus, the modem-day funeral," said Wilkerson. "They thought it was out of control, it was
ridiculous. " But in addition to the environmental benefits, most families participating in greenburials agree that the cost savings are significant. "There is, in fact, a large percentage of Americanpeople who are resistant to the large $10,000 funeral, especially the embalming. We don't even
allow it," said Wilkerson. Estimates vary from state to state, but the average cost of a typicalfuneral in a commercial cemetery is between $ 5,000 and $10,000. A green burial, however, isusually less than $ 3,000. "We have allowed the commercial funeral industry to convince us that theonly way to measure our love for our dead is through the amount of conspicuous consumption thatwe lavish on them," said Slocum.
Generally speaking, in the United States, the average expense of a normal commercial funeral is much more than that of a green burial.

题目:

Nutrients are classified into five major groups: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals andvitamins.

题目:

Vegetable protein sources are often lacking in essential amino acids, as opposed to animal proteinswhich are generally considered complete proteins.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
The Nutrients in Food
A)Nutrients are the parts of food that are important for life and health. Nutrients are important for threereasons. First, some nutrients provide fuel for energy. Second, some nutrients build and repair bodytissues. Third, some nutrients help control different processes of the body like the absorption ofminerals and the dotting ( 凝结) of blood. Scientists think there are 40 to 50 nutrients. Thesenutrients are pided into five general groups: carbohydrates ( 碳水化合物), fats, proteins, mineralsand vitamins.
Carbohydrates and Fats
B)The first group of nutrients is carbohydrates. There are two kinds of carbohydrates: starches (淀粉)and sugars. Bread, potatoes, and rice are starches. They have many carbohydrates. Candy, softdrinks, jelly, and other foods with sugar also have carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are important because they provide the body with heat and energy. Sugar, for instance, is 100 percent energy. Ithas no other food value. Sugar does not build body tissues or control body processes. If there aretoo many carbohydrates in the body, they are stored as body fat. The body stores fuel as fat.
C)There are two types of fats: animal and vegetable. Butter, cream, and the fat in bacon ( 熏肉) areanimal fats。live oil, corn oil, and peanut oil are vegetable fats. The body has fat under the skinand around some of the organs inside. The average adult has 10 to 11 kilograms (20 to 25 pounds)of body fat. If adults eat too many carbohydrates and fats, they can add another 45 kilograms ( 100 pounds) to their bodies. Fat is extra fuel. When the body needs energy, it changes the fat intocarbohydrates. The carbohydrates are used for energy. Fat also keeps the body warm.
Proteins
D)The third group of nutrients is proteins. The word "protein" comes from a Greek word that means"of first importance". Proteins are "of first importance" because they are necessary for life.Proteins are made of amino acids which build and repair body tissues. They are an important part ofall the muscles, organs, skin, and hair. The body has 22 different amino acids. Nutritionists calleight of these amino acids essential because the body does not manufacture them. There are twokinds of proteins: complete proteins and incomplete proteins. Complete proteins, which the bodyneeds for growth, have all the essential amino acids. Meat, fish, poultry (家禽), eggs, milk, andcheese have complete proteins. The body needs complete proteins every day. Incomplete proteinsdo not have all the essential amino acids. The proteins in vegetables and grains, for instance, areincomplete proteins. Two ways to form complete proteins from incomplete proteins are: (1) to mixvegetables and grains correctly, or (2) to add a small amount of meat or milk to a large amount of~grains. The body can then use the complete proteins which result from the mixtures.
E) Extra protein in the body can be changed to fat and stored as body fat. It can also be changed tocarbohydrates and used for energy. If people do not eat enough carbohydrates and fats for theenergy that they need, their body uses proteins for energy. Then the body does not have the proteinsthat it needs to build and repair tissues. A nutritious diet includes carbohydrates and fats for energy,and proteins for growth.
Minerals
F) The fourth group of nutrients is minerals. More than twenty different minerals are in the body.Three of the most important minerals are calcium ( 钙), phosphorus ( 磷), and iron. Calcium andphosphorus work together. The bones and the teeth have 99 percent of the calcium in the body. Ifpeople have enough calcium and phosphorus, their bones and teeth will be strong and hard. Inaddition, their muscles, nerves, and heart will work correctly. Milk and hard cheeses are the bestsources of calcium. After the age of 19, people need 400 to 500 milligrams of calcium a day. Peoplewho do not drink three glasses of milk daily can eat 50 hamburgers or 56 apples to get the calciumthey need.
G) Iron is the mineral that makes blood look red. All lean meats have iron; liver is an especially goodsource of iron. Whole grains, nuts, some vegetables, and dried fruits also have iron. If there is notenough iron in their diets, people will get a disease that is commonly called anemia ( 贫血症).Anemia is found all over the world. People with anemia do not have enough iron in their blood.Because iron carries oxygen, people who do not have enough iron do not get enough oxygen fortheir normal activities. Their hearts beat faster so their bodies can get more oxygen. People whohave anemia often get tired easily. Sometimes their skin looks white: it does not look pink andhealthy.
Vitamins
H) Nutritionists think there are thirteen vitamins that humans need. Vitamins are important becausethey prevent diseases and help control body processes. Vitamin A is important for healthy skin andeyes. People who do not have enough vitamin A may have night blindness. Some automobileaccidents happen in the evening because people who lack vitamin A do not see the road well afterthey look at the bright headlights of a car. Vitamin A in the diet comes from deep yellow fruits and vegetables, dark green leafy vegetables, and whole milk.
I) When people have enough B vitamins, their appetite is good and their nerves are calm. B vitamins inthe diet come from some meats and vegetables, milk, cottage cheese, and whole grains. When agrain is processed, it loses vitamins. For example, there is a big difference between brown andwhite rice. When rice is processed, the brown outside is lost. The brown outside of rice has animportant B vitamin which white rice lacks. In short, brown rice has more B vitamins than processedrice.
J) Vitamin C keeps the cells of the body together. It helps skin tissue recover from cuts and burns.Vitamin C in the diet comes from tomatoes, citrus (柑橘类植物) fruits like lemons and oranges,and some vegetables such as cabbage and green peppers. Vitamin D is called the "sunshine"vitamin, when people sit outside, ultraviolet (紫外线的) rays from the sun change a fat in theirskin to vitamin D. Vitamin D is also in cod (鳕鱼) liver oil and the yellow of eggs. It is sometimesadded to milk. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium. It helps build strong bones, and itprevents a disease in children that is called rickets (佝偻病). when children have this disease, theirbones bend because they do not become hard. Rickets is seldom found in sunny, tropical countries.Rickets is more common in countries that have long winters with little sunshine, in cities that havepollution that keeps the sun out, and in towns surrounded by mountains that keep the sun out.There is no one food that is essential, but there are nutrients that are necessary for good health. Ifpeople want to be healthy and active, they need to get all the essential nutrients. A healthy bodyneeds carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins.
The body will use protein for energy if there are not enough carbohydrates and fats to consume.

题目:

Just like a democratic belief, environmental sensitivity nowadays is considered as a required attitudein the upper class.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题
Saving Nature, But Only Man
Environmental Necessities and Environmental Luxuries
A)Environmental sensitivity is now as required an attitude in polite society as is, say, belief indemocracy or aversion to nylon. But now that everyone has claims to love Mother Earth, how arewe to choose among the dozens of conflicting proposals, restrictions, projects, regulations and lawsadvanced in the name of the environment Clearly not everything with an environmental claim isworth doing. How to choose
B)There is a simple way.First, distinguish between environmental luxuries and environmentalnecessities. Luxuries are those things that would be nice to have if costless. Necessities are thosethings we must have regardless. Then apply a rule. Call it the fundamental principle of sensibleenvironmentalism: Combating ecological change that directly threatens the health and safety ofpeople is an environmental necessity. All else is luxury. For example: preserving the atmosphere,by both protecting the ozone layer and halting the greenhouse effect, is an environmental necessity.In April scientists reported that ozone damage is far worse than previously thought。zone reductionnot only causes skin cancer and eye cataracts ( 白内障), it also destroys plankton (浮游生物), thebeginning of the food chain on top which we humans sit.
C)The reality of the greenhouse effect is more speculative, though its possible consequences are fardeadlier: melting ice caps, flooded coastlines, disturbed climate, dried up plains and, ultimately,empty breadbaskets. The American Midwest feeds the world. Are we prepared to see Iowa acquireAlbuquerque's climate And Siberia acquire Iowa's Ozone reduction and the greenhouse effect arehuman disasters. They happen to occur in the environment. But they are urgent because theydirectly threaten man. A sensible environmentalism, the only kind of environmentalism that will winuniversal public support, begins by unashamedly declaring that nature is here to serve man. Asensible environmentalism is entirely man-centered:it calls for man to preserve nature, but on thegrounds of serf-preservation.
A Sensible Environmentalism Does Not Sentimentalize the Earth
D)A sensible environmentalism does not sentimentalize the earth. It does not ask people to sacrifice inthe name of other creatures. After all, it is hard enough to ask people to sacrifice in the name ofother humans. (Think of the public resistance to foreign aid and welfare. ) Ask hardworking votersto sacrifice in the name of snail darter (蜗牛鱼), and, if they are feeling polite, they will give youa shrug.
E).Of course, this man-centeredness runs against the grain of a contemporary environmentalism that.worships the earth to the point of excess。ne scientific theory-Gaia theory--actually claims thatEarth is a living organism. This kind of environmentalism likes to consider itself spiritual. It isnothing more than sentimental. It takes, for example, a highly selective view of the kindliness ofnature. My nature worship stops with the May storms that killed more than 125,000 Bengalis and left 10 million homeless.
F) A non-sentimental environmentalism is one founded on Protagoras principle that "Man is themeasure of all things ".Such a principle helps us to fight our way through the jungle ofenvironmental argument. Take the current debate raging over oil drilling in a corner of the AlaskaNational Wildlife Refuge. Environmentalists, fighting against a bill working its way through Congressto permit such exploration, argue that we should be conserving energy instead of drilling for it. Thisis a false either/or proposition.The country does need a substantial energy tax to reduceconsumption. But it needs more production, too. Government estimates indicate a nearly fifty-fiftychance that under the ANWR lies one of the five largest oil fields ever discovered in America.
G) We have just come through a war fought in part over oil.. Energy dependence costs Americans notjust dollars but lives. It is a ridiculous sentimentalism that would deny ourselves oil that is peacefullyattainable because it risks disrupting the breeding grounds of Arctic reindeer ( 驯鹿). I like thereindeer as much as the next man. And I would be rather sorry if their mating patterns aredisturbed. But you cannot have everything. And if the choice is between the welfare of reindeer andreducing oil dependence that gets people killed in wars, I choose man over reindeer every time.
H) Similarly the spotted owl. I am no enemy of the owl. If it could be preserved at no or little cost, Iwould agree: the variety of nature is a good, a high aesthetic (美学的) good. But it is no more thanthat. And sometimes aesthetic goods have to be sacrificed to the more fundamental ones. If the costOf preserving the spotted owl is the loss of livelihood for 30,000 logging families, I choose family over owl.
Man Is the Master of Nature
I) The important distinction is between those environmental goods that are fundamental and those thatare merely aesthetic. Nature is our charge. It is not our master. It is to be respected and evencultivated. But it is man's world. And when man has to choose between his well-being and that ofnature, nature will have to accommodate.
J) Man should accommodate only when his fate and that of nature are bound up together. The most urgentaccommodation must be made when the very integrity of man's environment--e, g. :atmospheric ozone--is threatened. When the threat to man is of a lesser order (say, the pollutants form coal- and oil-fired generators that cause death from disease but not fatal damage to the ecosystem), a moremoderate accommodation that balances economic against health concerns is in order. But in eithercase the principle is the same: protect the environment--because it is man's environment. Thesentimental environmentalists will call this saving nature with a totally wrong frame of mind.Exactly. A sensible--a humanistic--environmentalism does it not for nature's sake but for our own.
The fundamental principle of sensible environmentalism is to battle against ecological change whichthreatens people's health and safety.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答题

Can Burglars Jam Your Wireless Security System

A.Any product that promises to protect your home deserves careful examination.So it isn’t surprising that you’ll find plenty of strong opinions about the potential vulnerabilities of popular home—security systems.B.The most likely type of burglary(人室盗窃)by far is the unsophisticated crime of opportunity,usuallyinvolving a broken window or some forced entry.According to the FBI.crimes like these accounted forroughly two.thirds of all household burglaries in the US in 2013.The wide majority of the rest were illegal.unforced entries that resulted from something like a window being left open.The odds of a criminal usingtechnical means to bypass a security system are so small that the FBI doesn’t even track those statistics.
C.One of the main theoretical home—security concerns is whether or not a given system is vulnerable to beingblocked from working altogether.With wired setups,the fear is that a burglar(人室盗贼)might be ableto shut your system down simply by cutting the right cable.With a wireless setup.you stick battery—powered sensors up around your home that keep an eye on windows。doors,motion,and more.If theydetect something wrong while the system is armed.they’ll transmit a wireless aleft signal to a base stationthat will then raisethe alarm.That approach will eliminate most cord—cutting concerns--but what abouttheir wireless equivalent,jammingwith the fight device tuned to the fight frequency,what’s to stop athief from jamming your setup and blocking that alert signal from ever reaching the base station
D.Jamming concerns are nothing new,and they’re not unique to security systems.Any device that’s built toreceive a wireless signal at a specific frequency can be overwhelmed by a stronger signal coming in on thesame frequency.For comparison,let’s say you wanted to“jam”a conversation between two people--allyou’d need to do is yell in the listener’s ear.
E)Security devices are required to list the frequencies they broadcast on—mat means that a potential thief canfind what they need to know with minimal Googling.They will.however.need to know what systemthey’re looking for.If you have a sign in your yard declaring what setup you use,that’d point them in theright direction,though at that point,we’re talking about a highly targeted,semi—sophisticated attack,andnot the sort of forced—entry attack that makes up the majority of burglaries.It’s easier to find and acquirejamming equipment for some frequencies than it is for others.
F)Wireless security providers will often take steps to help combat the threat of jamming attacks.SimpliSafe,winner of our Editors’Choice distinction.utilizes a special system that’s capable of separating incidental RFinterference from targeted jamming attacks.When the system thinks it’s being jammed,it’ll notify you viapush alert(推送警报).From there,it’s up to you to sound the alarm manually.
G)SimpliSafe was singled out in one recent article on jamming,complete with a video showing the entiresystem being effectively bypassed with handheld jamming equipment.After taking appropriate measures tocontain the RF interference to our test lab,we tested the attack out for ourselves,and were able to verify that it’s possible with the right equipment.However.we also verified that SimpliSafe’s anti-jammingsystem works.It caught us in the act,sent an alert to my smartphone,and also listed our RF interferenceon the system’s event log.The team behind the article and video in question make no mention of thesystem,or whether or not it detected them.
H)We like the unique nature of that software.It means that a thief likely wouldn’t be able to Google how thesystem works.then figure out a way around it.Even if they could,SimpliSafe claims that its system isalways evolving,and that it varies slightly from system to system,which means there wouldn’t be auniversal magic formula for cracking it.Other systems also seem confident on the subject of jamming.Theteam at Frontpoint addresses the issue in a blog on its site,citing their own jam protection software andclaiming that there aren’t any documented cases of a successful jam attack since the company began offeringwireless security sensors in the 1980s.
I)Jamming attacks are absolutely possible.As said before.with the fight equipment and the right know—how,it’s possible to jam any wireless transmission.But how probable is it that someone will successfully jam their way into your home and steal your stuff
J)Let’s imagine that you live in a small home with a wireless security setup that offers a functional anti—jamming system.First,a thief is going to need to target your home,specifically.Then,he’s going to needto know the technical details of your system and acquire the specific equipment necessary for jamming yourspecific setup.Presumably,you keep your doors locked at night and while you’re away,so the thief willstill need to break in.That means defeating the lock somehow,or breaking a window.He’ll need to bejamming you at this point,as a broken window or opened door would normally release the alarm.So,too,would the motion detectors in your home,so the thief will need to continue jamming once he’s inside andsearching for things to steal.However,he’ll need to do so without tripping the anti-jamming system,thedetails of which he almost certainly does not have access to.
K)At the end of the day,these kinds of systems are primarily designed to protect against the sort ofopportunistic smash—and—grab attack that makes up the majority of burglaries.They’re also only a singlelayer in what should ideally be a many—sided approach to securing your home,one that includes commonsense things like sound locks and proper exterior lighting at night.No system is impenetrable,and none canpromise to eliminate the worst case completely.Every one of them has vulnerabilities that a knowledgeablethief could theoretically exploit.A good system is one that keeps that worst—case setting as improbable aspossible while also offering strong protection in the event of a less-extraordinary attack.
It is possible for burglars to make jamming attacks with the necessary equipment and skill.

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