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题目:

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Text 4

  When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned.
  Why is that To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to shove for attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure project, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged.
  Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes.
  The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need.
  There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%.
  Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new developments from revenues.
  But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015,is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large part of the coalition’s spending plans if returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to era of large-scale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate.

36. The author believes that the housing sector________

A.has attracted much attention
B.involves certain political factors
C.shoulders too much responsibility
D.has lost its real value in economy

题目:

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Text 2

  An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to research into what the call the “above average effect”, or “illusory superiority”, and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others—all obviously statistical impossibilities.
  We rose tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we’re hot stuff.
  Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original photogragh of themselves’ from a lineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is “an automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image- which must did- they genuinely believed it was really how they looked. Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those who self-enhance the must (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. “I don’t think the findings that we having have are any evidence of personal delusion”, says Epley. “It’s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves’. If you are depressed, you won’t be self-enhancing. Knowing the results of Epley ‘s study,it makes sense that why people heat photographs of themselves Viscerally-on one level, they don’t even recognise the person in the picture as themselves, Facebook therefore ,is a self-enhancer’s paradise,where people can share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellect and lifestyle it’s not that people’s profiles are dishonest,says catalina toma of Wiscon—Madison university ,”but they portray an idealized version of themselves.

26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have found that ______.

A.our self-ratings are unrealistically high
B.illusory superiority is baseless effect
C.our need for leadership is unnatural
D.self-enhancing strategies are ineffective

题目:

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Text 1

  What would you do with 590m This is now a question for Gloria Mackenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest unpided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read Happy Money by Elizabeth Dumn and Michael Norton.
  These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly what was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dumn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time-as stories or memories-particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.
  This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most "happiness bang for your buck." It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it).Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason MacDonald's restricts the availability of its popular McRib - a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.
  Readers of “HappyMoney” are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger.Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.

21. According to Dumn and Norton,which of the following is the most rewarding purchase

A.A big house
B.A special tour
C.A stylish car
D.A rich meal

题目:

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  Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have ___1___ that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually ___2___. For example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. ___3___ among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an ___4___ of good health.
  Of even greater ___5___ is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined ___6___ body mass index, or BMI. BMI ___7__ body mass pided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, ___8___,can be pided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese.
  While such numerical standards seem ___9___ , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat. Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, ___10___ others with a low BMI may be in poor ___11___ .For example, many collegiate and professional football players ___12___ as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a ___13___ BMI.
  Today we have a(an) ___14___ to label obesity as a disgrace.The overweight are sometimes___15___in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes ___16___ with obesity include laziness, lack of will power,and lower prospects for success.Teachers,employers,and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. ___17___very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.
Negative attitudes toward obesity,____18____in health concerns,have stimulated a number ofanti-obesity____19____.My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facilities.Many employers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives.Michelle Obama has launched a high-visibility campaign____20____childhood obesity,even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat.

请在第__1__处填上正确答案。

A.denied
B.conduced
C.doubled
D.ensured

题目:

根据以下资料,回答
  
Musicmeans different things to different people and sometimes even different thingsto the same person at different moments of his life. It might be poetic,philosophical, sensual, or mathematical, but in any case it must, in my view,have something to do with the soul of the human being. Hence it ismetaphysical; but the means of expression is purely and exclusively physical:sound. I believe it is precisely this permanent coexistence of metaphysicalmessage through physical means that is the strength of music. (46)It is alsothe reason why when we try to describe music with words, all we can do isarticulate our reactions to it, and not grasp music itself.

  Beethoven’simportance in music has been principally defined by the revolutionary nature ofhis compositions. He freed music from hitherto prevailing conventions ofharmony and structure. Sometimes I feel in his late works a will to break allsigns of continuity. The music is abrupt and seemingly disconnected, as in thelast piano sonata. In musical expression, he did not feel restrained by theweight of convention. (47)By all accounts he was a freethinking person, anda courageous one, and I find courage an essential quality for theunderstanding, let alone the performance, of his works.

  Thiscourageous attitude in fact becomes a requirement for the performers ofBeethoven’s music. His compositions demand the performer to show courage, forexample in the use of dynamics. (48)Beethoven’s habit of increasing thevolume with an intense crescendo and then abruptly following it with a suddensoft passage was only rarely used by composers before him.

  Beethovenwas a deeply political man in the broadest sense of the word. He was notinterested in daily politics, but concerned with questions of moral behaviorand the larger questions of right and wrong affecting the entire society. (49)Especiallysignificant was his view of freedom, which, for him, was associated with therights and responsibilities of the inpidual: he advocated freedom of thoughtand of personal expression.

  Beethoven’s music tends to move from chaos toorder as if order were an imperative of human existence. For him, order doesnot result from forgetting or ignoring the disorders that plague our existence;order is a necessary development, an improvement that may lead to the Greekideal of spiritual elevation. It is not by chance that the Funeral March is notthe last movement of the Eroica Symphony, but the second, so that sufferingdoes not have the last word. (50)One could interpret much of the work ofBeethoven by saying that suffering is inevitable, but the courage to fight itrenders life worth living.
正确翻译为______.

题目:

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As many people hit middle age, they often start to notice that theirmemory and mental clarity are not what they used to be. We suddenly can’tremember ___1___ we put the keys just a moment ago, or an old acquaintance’sname, or the name of an old band we used to love. As the brain ___2___, werefer to these occurrences as “senior moments.” ___3___ seemingly innocent,this loss of mental focus can potentially have a (n) ___4___ impact on ourprofessional, social, and personal ___5___.
Neuroscientists,experts who study the nervous system, are increasingly showing that there’sactually a lot that can be done. It ___6___ out that the brain needs exercisein much the same way our muscles do, and the right mental ___7___ cansignificantly improve our basic cognitive ___8___. Thinking is essentially a___9___ of making connections in the brain. To a certain extent, our ability to___10___ in making the connections that drive intelligence is inherited.___11___, because these connections are made through effort and practice,scientists believe that intelligence can expand and fluctuate ___12___ mentaleffort.
Now, a newWeb-based company has taken it a step ___13___ and developed the first “braintraining program” designed to actually help people improve and regain theirmental ___14___.
The Web-basedprogram ___15___ you to systematically improve your memory and attentionskills. The program keeps ___16___ of your progress and provides detailedfeedback ___17___ your performance and improvement. Most importantly, it___18___modifies and enhances the games you play to ___19___ on the strengthsyou are developing—much like a(n) ___20___exercise routine requires you toincrease resistance and vary your muscle use.
请在第__1__处填上正确答案。

A.where
B.when
C.that
D.why

题目:

根据以下资料回答
In the following text.some sentences have been removed.For Questions 41—45, choose the most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numberedblanks.There are two extra choices,which do not fit in any of the blanks.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
  Even if we could make it impossible for people to commit crimes,should weOr would doing so improperly deprive people of their freedom
This may sound like a fanciful concern,but it is an increasingly real one.The new federal transportation bill,for example,authorized funding for a program that seeks to prevent the crime of drunken driving not by raising public consciousness or issuing stiffer punishments—but by making the crime practically impossible to commit.(41)______ The Dadss program is part of a trend toward what I call the“perfect prevention”of crimedepriving people of the choice to commit an offense in the first place.The federal government’s Intelligent Transportation Systems program,which is creating technology to share data among vehicles and road infrastructure like traffic lights,could make it impossible for a driver to speed or run a red light.(42)______
  Such technologies force US to reconcile two important interests.On one hand is society’s desire for safety and security.On the other hand is the inpidual’S right to act freely. Conventional crime prevention balances these interests by allowing inpiduals the freedom to commit crime,but punishing them if they do.
  The perfect prevention of crime asks US to consider exactly how far inpidual freedom extends.Does freedom include a“right”to drive drunk.for instanceIt is hard to imagine that it does.(43)______
  For most familiar crimes(murder,robbery,rape,arson),the law requires that the actor have some guilty state of mind,whether it is intent,recklessness or negligence.
(44)______
  In such cases,using technology to prevent the crime entirely would not unduly burden inpidual freedom;it would simply be effective enforcement of the statute.Because there is no mental state required to be guilty of the offense,the government could require,for instance.that drug manufacturers apply a special tamper-proof coating to all pills,thusmaking the sale of tainted drugs practically impossible,without intruding on the thoughts of any future seller.
  But because the government must not intrude on people’s thoughts,perfect prevention is a bad fit for most offenses.(45) ______ Even if this could be known,perhaps with the help of some sort of neurological scan,collecting such knowledge would violate an inpidual’s freedom of thought.
  Perfect prevention is a politically attractive approach to crime prevention,and for strict— liability crimes it is permissible and may be good policy if implemented properly.But for most offenses,the threat to inpidual freedom is too great to justify this approach.This is not because people have a right to commit crimes;they do not.Rather,perfect preventionthreatens our right to be free in our thoughts,even when those thoughts turn to crime.
A.But there is a category of crimes that are forbidden regardless of the actor’s state of mindso.called strict—liability offenses.One example is the sale of tainted drugs. Another is drunken driving.
B.The Dadss program,despite its effectiveness in preventing drunk driving,is criticized as a violation of human rights because it monitors drivers’behavior and controls inpidual’s free will.
C.And the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of l998 has already criminalized thedevelopment of technologies that can be used to avoid copyright restrictions,making it effectively impossible for most people to illegally share certain copyrighted materials, including video games.
D.If the actor doesn’t have the guilty state of mind,and he commits crime involuntarily,in this case,the actor will be convicted as innocent.
E.Perfect prevention of a crime like murder would require the ability to know what a person was thinking in order to determine whether he possessed the relevant culpable mental state.
F.The program,the Driver Alcohol Detection System for Safety(Dadss),is developing in vehicle technology that automatically checks a driver’s blood—alcohol level and,if that level is above the legal limit,prevents the car from starting.
G.But what if the government were to add a drug to the water supply that suppressedantisocial urges and thereby reduced the murder rate This would seem like an obvious violation of our freedom.We need a clear method of distinguishing such cases.
___________

题目:

根据以下资料回答
  Sweden has a longstanding reputation as an egalitarian country with a narrow gendergap.But a national debate about gender equality has revealed substantial dissatisfaction,with some Swedes feeling it has gone too far.Rousing controversy now is the issue of gender pedagogy,a concept that emerged in the early 2000s and typically involves challenging gender stereotypes in learning material and in avoiding treating male and female pupils in a stereotypical manner.But what has sharpened the debate in Sweden has been the argument that schools should also be gender neutral,giving children the opportunity to define themselves as neither male nor female if they wish.
  Kristina Henkel,a gender expeIrt specializing in equality in schools,disputes the argument that gender pedagogy and neutrality are being foisted on Swedes.“Sweden has a long tradition of working with equality and this has had strong support among politicians,”
she says,and adds that“the question of gender neutrality,or of everyone having equal rights despite their gender,has also been driven by activists at the grassroots level.”
  But Elise Claeson,a columnist and a former equality expert at the Swedish
Confederation of Professions,disagrees.“I have long participated in debates with gender pedagogues and they act like an elite,”she says.“They tend to be well.educated.live in big cities,and have contacts in the media,and they clearly despise traditional people.”
  Ms.Claeson has been a vocal critic of the word“hen,”a new,gender.neutral pronoun that was recently included in the online version of the National Encyclopedia.Around the same time,Sweden’s first gender—neutral children’s book was published.The author,JesperLundqvist,uses hen throughout his book,completely avoiding han and hon,the Swedishwords for him and her.
  Claeson believes that the word hen can be harmful to young children because,she says,it can be confusing for them to receive contradicting messages about their genders in school,at home,and in society at large.“It is important to have your gender confirmed to you as a child.This does not limit childrenit makes them confident about their identity...Children ought to be allowed to mature slowly and naturally.As adults we can choose to expand and change our gender identities.”
  Last fall,nearly 200 teachers gathered in Stockholm to discuss how to avoid“traditional gender patterns”in schools.The conference was part of a research project run by the National Agency for Education and supported by the Delegation for Equality in Schools.“Iwork with these issues in Finland and Norway and it is clear to me that they have been inspired by the Swedish preschool—and school curricula,”says Ms.Henkel,the genderexpert.But Henkel also insists that gender equality is a rights issue that cannot simply be left to the state to handle.Instead,she says,it requires the active involvement of citizens.
“Rights are not something we receive and then don’t have to fight for.This is about a redistribution of power,and for that,initiative and action are needed,not just fancy legislation.”
The problem that bothers Swedes most nowadays is________.

A.the controversy about gender pedagogy in school
B.the attempt to experiment gender neutrality in school
C.the slow progress of gender equality in school
D.the stubbornly serious gender stereotype in school

题目:

根据以下资料回答
  It’s the part of the job that stock analyst Hiroshi Naya dislikes the mostphoning investor managers on a Saturday or Sunday when he’s working on a report and facing a deadline.In Japan,placing a work call to someone on the weekend“feels like entering someone’s house with your shoes on,”says Naya,chief analyst at Ichiyoshi Research Institute in Toky0.So last year,Naya started asking his questions via messages on Facebook.While a telephonecall seems intrusive,he says,a Facebook message“feels more relaxed.”
  Many Japanese have become fans of Mark Zuckerberg’s company in the past year.It’s taken a whileEven as Facebook took off in India,Indonesia,and other parts of Asia,it’s been a laggard in Japan since its local—language version debuted in 2008.The site faced cultural obstacles in a country where people historically haven’t been comfortable sharing personal information,or even their names,on the Internet.Homegrown rivals such as community website operator Mixi and online game portals such as DeNA allow their users to adopt pseudonyms.
  The Japanese are overcoming their shyness,though.In February,Facebook had 13.5million unique users,up from 6 million a year earlier.That puts Facebook in the N0.1position in Japan for the first time,ahead of Twitter and onetime leader Mixi.“Facebook didn,t have a lot of traction in Japan for the longest time,”says Arvind Rajan,Asia—Pacific managing director for LinkedIn,which entered the Japanese market last October and hopes to emulate Facebook’s recent success.“They really did turn the corner,”he says.Rajan attributes the change in attitude to the March 11,20 11,earthquake and tsunami.During the crisis and its aftermath,sites such as Facebook helped parents and children locate each other and allowed people post and find reliable information.“The real—name case has been answered.”says Rajan.“People are getting it now.”
  Japanese see Facebook as a powerful business t001.The real—name policy makes the site a good place to cultivate relationships with would_be partners.As more companies such as retailers Uniqlo and Muji turn to Facebook to reach Japanese consumers,the Silicon Valley company is benefiting from a virtuous cycle,says Koki Shiraishi,an analyst in Tokyo with Daiwa Securities Capital Markets.“It’s a chicken—and—egg thingIf everyone starts using it,then more people start using it.”
  As a result of Facebook’s rise.investors have soured on some of its rivalsDeNA’s stock price has dropped 24 percent in the past year,and Mixi’s has fallen 38 percent.Growth at Twitter--which also entered Japan in 2008--has stagnated,and the San Francisco company has partnered with Mixi to do joint marketing.Twitter Japan country manager James Kondo says there’s no reason to worry.Japan’s social networking scene“is a developing thing,”he says.“We,re not in a flat market where everyone is competing for a share of a fixed pie.”
Hiroshi Naya takes a fancy to Facebook because_______.

A.it enables him to reach out to business partners
B.it saves the trouble of face—to—face meeting
C.it flees him from making awkward calls
D.it makes him relaxed to make intrusive remarks

题目:

根据以下资料回答
  California is having problems with its death penalty.It hasn’t executed anyone since 2006,when a federal court ruled that its method of lethal injection was improper and could cause excessive pain.The state spent five years coming up with a better method——and last month,a judge threw that one out t00.One indication of just how encumbered California’s capital—punishment system isthe prisoner who brought the latest lethal—injection challenge has been on death row for 24 years.
  It isn’t just California.The Death Penalty Information Center reported last month that thenumber of new death sentences nationally was down sharply in 2011,dropping below 100 for the first time in decades.It also reported that executions were plummeting_______down 56% since 1999.
  There has long been an idea about how the death penalty would end in the U.S.the Supreme Court would hand down a sweeping ruling saying it is unconstitutional in all cases.
But that is not what is happening.Instead of top—down abolition.we seem to be getting it from the bottom up-governors,state legislatures,judges and juries quietly deciding not to support capital punishment.New Jersey abolished its death penalty in 2007.New Mexicoabolished its death penalty in 2009.There are now l6 states—0r about one—third of the country—that have abolished capital punishment.
  There are several reasons we seem to be moving toward de facto abolition of the death penalty.A major one has been the growing number of prisoners on death row who have been exonerated——139 and counting since 1973,according to a list maintained by the Death Penalty Information Center.Even many people who support capital punishment in theory balk when they are confronted with clear evidence that innocent people are being sentenced to death.
  Another factor is cost.Money is tight these days.and more attention is being paid to just how expensive death.penalty cases are.A 2008 study found that California was spending $137 million on capital cases—a sizable outlay,particularly since it was not putting anyone to death.
  According to the polls,a majority of the country has not yet turned against the death penalty——but support is slipping.In l994,80%of respondents in a Gallup poll said they supported the death penalty for someone convicted of murder.In 2001,just 61%did.In polls where respondents are given a choice between the death penalty or life without parole and restitution,a majority has gone with the non-death option.
  Many opponents of the death penalty are still hoping for a sweeping Supreme Courtruling,and there is no denying that it would have unique force.Five Justices,with a stroke of their pens.could end capital punishment nationwide.But bottom—up,gradual abolition has other advantages.What we are seeing is not a small group of judges setting policy.It is a large number of Americans gradually losing their enthusiasm for putting people to death.
The top—down abolition in Paragraph 3 refers to______.

A.the abolition of death penalty on a national scale
B.the abolition of death penalty decided by the supreme court
C.the abolition of death penalty at state level
D.the abolition of death penalty by referendum

题目:

Write a notice for the Office of Peking University to inform the teachers,workers and some students of a meeting to commend the advanced teachers and workers.Do not sign your own name at the end of the notice.
Use“the office of Peking university”instead.
you should write a,bout 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET

题目:

根据以下资料,回答题Directions
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments intoChinese.Your translation should be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
  Annual check—ups and company “wellness programmes”have become a familiar part of the corporate landscape.(46)Companies are now also starting to touch on a potentially troubling areatheir employees mental health.Companies as perse as BT.Rolls Royce and Grant Thornton have introduced mental health programmes ranging from training managers to spot problems to rehabilitating those suffering breakdowns
  The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health estimates that a sixth of the Bfitish workforce suffers from depression or stress.That mental ill health costs Bfitish employers almost$26 billion a year and American research suggests that“presenteeism”costs twice as much as absenteeism.Recently Grant Thornton sends its managers on a two day program put on by Positive Health Strategies,a London company.(47)Its program screens people forpsychological well being,and offers advice on“optimizing performance”and“staying positive under pressure”.Focusing on the upper ranks makes sense for companies.The stars not only represent huge profits.They are also most likely to live under stress while maintaining a stiff upper lip.But focusing on stars also makes sense for the mental wellness movement itselfthe best way to insert yourself into a company’s DNA is to seduce its leadership.
  (48)What should one make of the corporate world’s new found interest in promoting mental healthFor sure,depression and anxiety can take a serious toll on productivity,and companies bear their share of the blame for promoting stress in the first place.And catching psychological problems early can prevent them from escalating.This all sounds promising.
But there are nevertheless several troubling aspects.
  The first worry is that promoting psychological wellness crosses an important line between the public and the private,raising awkward questions.Should companies pry into people’s emotional livesCan they be trusted with the information they gatherAnd should psychologically frail workers put their faith in people who work primarily for their employers rather than in their personal doctorsWorkers rightly worry that companies will use psychological information in their annual appraisals. (49)And that bosses will see the trend as an excuse for extending their power over staff-using the veiled threat of somehow being classified as mentally impaired to make them obey,and conform
  A second worry is about the scientific foundations of the mental wellness movement.A phrase like“mental fitness”is bound to attract chalants and salesmen.Warren Bennis of the University of Southern California has noted that the new“science”of neuroleadership is “filled with banalities”.0ther people are less complimentary.The biggest problem with the movement lies in the assumption that promoting psychological wellness is as good as encouraging the physical sort.(50)Few would doubt that good physical health makes for good productivity;but it is not self-evident that a positive mental attitude is good for a worker or his outputhistory shows that misfits have contributed far more to creativity than perky optimists.Besides,curmudgeonliness is arguably a rational way to cope with an imperfect world,rather than a sign of mental maladjustment.Companies that chase the elusive“positive attitudes”may end up damaging themselves as well as sticking their noses where they have no business.
________

题目:

根据以下资料,回答题
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments intoChinese.Your translation should be written clearly on the ANSWER SHEET.(10points)
  (46)Signs of American culture,ranging from fast food to Hollywood movies,can be seen around the world.But now anthropologists have discovered a far more troubling cultural export from the United States-stigma against fat people.
  Negative perceptions about people who are overweight are becoming the cultural norm in many countries,according to a new report in the journal Current Anthropology.(47)Although some of the shift in thinking likely is explained by idealized slim body images promoted inAmerican advertising and Hollywood movies,the emergence of fat stigma around the world may also result from public health efforts to promote obesity as a disease and a worrisomethreat to a nation’s health
  Researchers from Arizona State University Dr.Brewis and her colleagues recentlycompleted a multicountry study intended to give a snapshot of the international zeitgeist about weight and body image.(48)The researchers elicited answers of true or false to statementswith varying degrees of fat stigmatization.The fat stigma test included statements like,“People are overweight because they are lazy”and“Fat people are fated to be fat”.Usingmostly in person interviews,supplemented with questions posed over the Internet,they testedattitudes among 700 people in lo countries,territories and cities.
  The findings were troubling.Dr.Brewis said she fully expected high levels of fat stigma toshow up in the“Anglosphere”countries,including the United States,England and NewZealand,as well as in body conscious Argentina.(49)But what she did not expect was how strongly people in the rest of the testing sites that have historically held more positive views of larger bodies,including Puerto Rico and American Samoa expressed negative attitudes about weight.The results,Dr.Brewis said,suggest a surprisingly rapid“globalization of fat stigma.”
  To be sure,jokes and negative perceptions about weight have been around for ages.Butwhat appears to have changed most is the level of criticism and blame leveled at people who are overweight.(50)One reason may be that public health campaigns branding obesity as a disease are sometimes perceived as being critical of inpiduals rather than the environmental and social factors that lead to weight gain.“0f all the things we could be exporting to help people around the world,really negative body image and low self-esteem are not what we hope is going out with public health messaging.”Dr.Brewis said.
  Dr.Brewis notes that far more study is needed to determine the extent of fat stigma and whether people were experiencing more social or workplace discrimination as a result of the growing fat stigma.“I think the next big question is whether it’s going to create a lot of new suffering where suffering didn’t exist before.”Dr.Brewis said.“I think it’s important that wethink about designing health messages around obesity that don’t exacerbate the problem.”
_______

题目:

根据以下资料,回答题In the following text,some sentences have been removed.For questions 41 45.choosethe most suitable one from the list A-G to fit into each of the numbered blanks.Thereare two extra choices,which do not fit in any of the blanks.Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET.(10 points)
A.Running after Them Doesn’t Help Anybody
B.Remember Newton’S Third Law
C.Show Some Respect for the Things They Care About
D.18 Years OldThe Beginning of Adulthood
E.Know Strength and Weakness of Your Child
F.Don’t Look Under the Mattress
G.Be Consistent
  When Your child becomes a teenager,you’re well over halfway through the job of raising them,and you have only a few years left to instill all those values and principles you want them to go into adult life with.And suddenly,they look as if they’re throwing away all the work you’ve put in up to now.But actually,if you just keep your head,and follow these essential teenage Rules,you’11 find you come out the other end with a terrific adult you can really be proud of.
41.
  Unless your child is putting themselves in serious danger,you really do have to put up with it.The more you try to tell them。the more you push them in the opposite direction.They’re looking for something to kick at,to rebel against,because they’re programmed to.The more force you use.the more they’ll use.Remember N ewton’S third law of motionFor every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.So what can you do when you see them going wrongYou can tell them what you think,but don’t tell them What to do.
42.
  Teenagers are up to things you don’t want to know about.For example,your daughterhas gone!further than you’d like with her boyfriend.And they’ve almost certainly been offered drugs,but they won’t have any evidence of it hanging around in their room,so there’s no point looking under the mattress or reading their secret diary.
  And what are you going to do about it—conffont themI think not.You’ll severely damage your relationship,and they’ll just keep them under the floorboards instead.
  Maybe you should think back to the things you did as a teenager that you didn’t want your parents to know about.SeeYour kids are just being perfectly normal teenagers.
43.
  It’s one of the many paradoxes of teenagers.On the one hand,they want to rebel,to shock you,to do things that get to you,and on the other hand,they want your approval and your goodwill.So when you criticize your teenager’s choices,you criticize them.It’s an age of fragile egos and easily knocked self-esteem,and it’s easy to make your teenager feel that you disapprove.or even that you don’t like them.Whether it's their music or their politics or the way they dress or their decision to become vegetarian,they need to know that it’s okay with you.
44.
  Yon started off with 18 Years and counting.How many have you got leftBecause when you get to zero.they’ll be on their own.I know parents who are still looking after their kids when they’re 18.And the kids.not being crazy,let them do it.It takes two to play that game. You know your child’s strengths and weaknesses as well as anyone.So think through what thev still need to learn.and make sure they d0.If they’re hopeless with money,teach them to budget.Get them to do the family shopping for a week on your usual budget,or get firm about not pavingto fill up their car beyond the agreed amount.
45.
  Your kids need to know what is and isn’t acceptable.And they judge that by what was and wasn’t okay yesterday and the day before.If they’re not getting a consistent ruessage,they,re clueless as to how they have to behave,and those all important boundaries aren’t being properly maintained.That means the kids feel confused,insecure,and perhaps eVen unloved.
  If you've decided that you don’t allow the kids to stay late outside,you have to stick to it. Just because your little one was a bit sad about something today,and you’re feeling a bit down yourself anyway...no,no,no!Stop right there!Let them come back at once and it will be ten times harder to say no to them next time,and they won’t understand why·Say no now and you’re only being cruel to be kind.
__________

题目:

根据以下资料,回答题
  Humans have never lacked for ways to get wasted.The natural world is full of soothing but addictive leaves and fruits and fungi,and for centuries,science has added them to the pharmacopoeia to relieve the pain of patients.In the past two decades,that’s been especially true.As the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations developed new policies to treat pain more actively,approaching it not just as an unfortunate side effect of illness but as a fifth vital sign,along with temperature,heart rate,respiratory rate and blood pressure.a bounty of new opoids(鸦片类药物)has rolled off Big Pharma’s production line.
  There was fentanyl,a synthetic opioid around since the l960s that went into wide use as a treatment for cancer pain in the l990s.That was followed by Oxycodone,a short-acting drug for more routine pain,and after that came Oxycontin,a 12-hour formulation of the same powerful pill.Finally came hydrocodone.The government considers hydrocodone aSchedule III drug--one with a“moderate or low”risk of dependency,as opposed to Schedule Il’s,which carry a“severe”risk.Physicians must submit a written prescription for Schedule II drugs;for Schedule IIl’s,they just phone the pharmacy.(Schedule I substances are drugs like heroin that are never prescribed.)For patients,that wealth of choices spelled danger.
  The result has hardly been surprising.Since 1990,there has been a tenfold increase inprescriptions for opioids in the U.S.,according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDCP).In l990 there were barely 6.000 deaths from accidental drug poisoning in the U.S.By 2007 that number had nearly quintupled to 27,658.
  Health officials do not tease out which drug is responsible for every death。and it’s not always possible.“There may be lots of drugs on board,”says Cathy Barber,director of the Injury Control Research Center at the Harvard School of Public Health.“Is it the opioid that caused the deathOr is it the combination of opioid,benzodiazepine and a cocktail the person had”Still,most experts agree that nothing but the exploding availability of opioids could be behind the exploding rate of death.
  Despite such heavy death toll,the suivellance over these popular pills faces regulatory maze.In early 2009,the FDA announced that it was initiating a“risk.evaluation and mitigation strategy”.The regulations the FDA is empowered to issue include requiring manufacturers to provide better information to patients and doctors,requiring doctors to meet certain educational criteria before writing opioid prescriptions and limiting the number of docs and pharmacies allowed to prescribe or dispense the drugs.“And with all that.”warns Dr.John Jenkins,director of the FDA’s Office of New Drugs,“we do still have to make sure patients have access to drugs they need.”Any regulations the FDA does impose won’t be announced until 2011 at the earliest and could take a year or more to roll out.That leaves millions of people continuing to fiU prescriptions.tens of thousands per year dying and patients in genuine pain wondering when a needed medication will relieve their suffering--and when it could lead to something worse.
Opoids are drugs______.

A.made from natural plants
B.that will result in addiction
C.classified as dangerous
D.used for pain—easing

题目:

根据以下资料,回答题
  Invention and innovation have been quintessentially American pursuits from the earliest days of the republic.Benjamin Franklin was a world—famous scientist and inventor.Cyrus McCormick and his harvester,Samuel F.B.Morse and the telegraph.Alexander Graham Bell and the telephone--the l9th century produced a string of inventors and their world—changing creations.And then there was the greatest of them all,Thomas Alva Edison.He came up with the crucial devices that would give birth to three enduring American industrieselectrical power,recorded music and motion pictures.
  Much of the world we live in today is a legacy of Edison and of his devotion to science and innovation.Edison taught us to invent,and for decades we were the best in the world.But today,more than l60 years after Edison’s birth,America is losing its scientific edge.A landmark report released in May by the National Science Board lays out the numberswhile U.S.investment in R&D as a share of total GDP has remained relatively constant since the mid一1980s at 2.7%.the federal share of R&D has been consistently declining--even as Asian nations like Japan and South Korea have rapidly increased that rati0.At the same time,American students seem to be losing interest in science.Only about one。third of U.S. bachelor’s degrees are in science or engineering now,compared with 63%in Japan and 53% in China.
  It’s ironic that nowhere is America’s position in science and technology more threatened than in the industry that Edison essentially inventedenergy.Clean power could be to the 2 1 st century what aeronautics and the computer were to the 20th,but the U.S.is already falling behind.Meanwhile,Congress remains largely paralyzed.Though in May the House of Representatives was finally able to pass the$86 billion America Competes Reauthorization Act,which would double the budgets of the National Science Foundation(NSF)and Energy Department’s Office of Science,the bill’s fate is cloudy in the deadlocked Senate.“At this rate...we’ll be buying most of our wind generators and photovoltaic panels from other countries,”former NSF head Arden L.Bement said at a congressional hearing recently. “That’s what keeps me awake sometimes at night.”
  Some erosion of the U.S.’s scientific dominance is inevitable in a globalized world and might not even be a bad thing.Tomorrow’s innovators could arise in Shanghai or Seoul or Bangalore.And Edison would counsel against panic--as he put it once,“Whatever setbacks America has encountered,it has always emerged as a stronger and more prosperous nation.”But the U.S.will inevitably decline unless we invest in the education and research necessary to maintain the American edge.The next generation of Edisons could be waiting.But unlesswe move quickly,they won’t have the tools they need to thrive.
The author mentioned many inventors in the first paragraph to_____.

A.remind American of their historical heritage
B.highlight American’s loss of supremacy in scientific innovation
C.describe the heyday of America in science and innnovation
D.express his regret for the decline of American national power

题目:

根据以下资料,回答题
  The first time I tried shark—fin soup was at Time Warner’s annual dinner in Hong Kong.Shark_fin soup is a luxury item($100 bowl in some restaurants)in Hong Kong and Mainland China,its biggest consumers;it’s a dish that embodies east Asia’s intertwined notions of hospitality and keeping(or losing)“face”.“It’s like champagne”,says Alvin Leung,owner of Be Innovation,a Cantonese restaurant in Hong Kong.“You don’t open a bottle of Coke to celebrate.It’s a ritual.”
  Unfortunately,this gesture of hospitality comes with a price tag much bigger than that$ 100 bowl.All told,up t0 70 million sharks are killed annually for the trade,despite the fact that 30%of shark species are threatened with extinction.“Sharks have made it through multiple mass extinctions on our planet,”says Matt Rand,director of Pew’s Global Shark Conservation pision.“Now many species are going to go the way of the dinosaur--for a bowl of soup.”
  The shark—fin industry has gained notoriety in recent years not just because of what it’s doing to the global shark population but also because of what’s known as finning—the practice of catching a shark,removing its fins and dumping the animal back into the sea. While a pound of shark fin can go for up to$300,most shark meat isn’t particularlyvaluable,and it takes up freezer space and weight on fishing boats.Today,finning is illegal in the waters of the E.U.,the U.S.and Australia,among others;boats are required to carry a certain ratio of fins to carcasses(尸体)to prevent massive overfishing.But there are loopholes in antifinning laws that are easy to exploit.In the E.U.,for example,ships can land the fins separately from the carcasses,making the job of monitoring the weight ratio nearly impossible.In the U.S.,a boat found carrying nearly 65,000 1b.(30,000 kg)of illegal shark fms won a court case because it was registered as a cargo vessel,which current U.S.finning laws do not cover.
  Sharks populations can’t withstand commercial fishing the way more fertile marine species can.Unlike other fish harvested from the wild,sharks grow slowly.They don’t reach sexual maturity until later in life—the female great white,for example,at 12 to 14 years—and when they do.they have comparatively few offspring at a time,unlike,say,tunas,which release millions of eggs when they spawn.
  The shark’s plight is starting to be weighed against the delicacy’s cultural value.The conservation group has lobbied local restaurants that offer the classic nine—course banquet served at Cantonese weddings.of which shark fin is traditionally a part,to offer a n0—shark menu as a choice to couples.
  After my first encounter with shark.fin soup.I decided that.1ike my colleagues,I would probably skip it next time.Unfortunately,that next time came at an intimate dinner in a small,private dining room,where I was both a guest and a stranger.When the soup-the centerpiece of the meal—was set down before me,I ate it.Apparently,I'm not the only one to cave.“You go to a wedding,and you refused to eat it just because you feel you’re insulted--I'm not that extreme,”Leung,the chef,says.“If other people believe that it brings luck or brings face.I'd be a spoilsport.”To make a dent in the slaughter of the sharks,however,there are going to have to be a lot of people willing to spoil this particular sport.
Which of the following statements about shark—fin soup is true

A.It has a price tag much bigger than$100 bowl.
B.It carries rich cultural meaning.
C.It tastes like champagne.
D.It is expensive for its high nutrition.

题目:

By citing Wal-mart’s example,the author intends to_____.

A.warn companies of potential culture shock in multinational management
B.encourage dissatisfied workers to fight against their boss
C.highlight the rarity of successful resistance against widespread cult for fun
D.express his admiration for disobedient German

题目:

根据以下资料,回答题
  One of the many pleasures of watching Mad Men,a television drama about theadvertising industry in the early 1960s,is examining the ways in which office life has changed over the years.One obvious change makes people feel good about themselvesthey no longer treat women as second—class citizens.But the other obvious change makes them feel a bit more uneasythey have lost the art of enjoying themselves at work.
  The ad—men in those days eaioyed simple pleasures.They puffed away at their desks.They drank throughout the day.They had affairs with their colleagues.They socialised not in order to bond,but in order to get drunk.Nowadays many companies are obsessed with fun. Software firms in Silicon Valley have installed rock—climbing walls in their reception areas and put inflatable animals in their offices.Wal-Mart orders its cashiers to smile at all and sundry. The cult of fun has spread like some disgusting haemorrhagic disease.
  This cult of fun is driven by three of the most popular management fads of the moment empowerment.engagement and creativity.Many companies pride themselves on devolving
power to front-line workers.But surveys show that only 20%of workers are“fully engaged with their.iob”.Even fewer are creative.Managers hope that“fun”will magically make workers more engaged and creative.But the problem is that as soon as fun becomes part of a corporate strategy it ceases to be fun and becomes its opposite-at best an empty shell and at worst a tiresome imposition.
  The most unpleasant thing about the fashion for fun is that it is mixed with a large dose of Dressure.Boston Pizza encourages workers to send“golden bananas”to colleagues who are“having fun while being the best”.Behind the“fun”there often lurks some crude management thinkinga desire to brand the company as better than its rivals,or a plan to boost productivity through team.building.Twitter even boasts that it has“worked hard to create an environment that spawns productMty and happiness”.
  While imposing fake fun on their employees,companies are battling against the realthing.Many force smokers to huddle outside like furtive criminals.Few allow their employees to drink at lunch time,let alone earlier in the day.A regiment of busybodies--from lawyers to human resources functionaries-is waging war on office romance,particularly between people of different ranks.
  The merchants of fake fun have met some resistance.When Wal—Mart tried to imposealien rules on its German staff-such as compulsory smiling and a ban on affairs with co-workers—it touched off a guerrilla war that ended only when the supermarket chainannounced it was pulling out of Germany in 2006.But such victories are rare.For most wage slaves forced to pretend they are having fun at work,the only relief is to poke fun at their tormentors.Mad Men reminds people of a world they have lost—a world where bosses did not think that“fun”was a management tool and where employees could happily quaff Scotch at noon.Cheers to that.
In the opening paragraph,the author introduces his topic by_____.

A.explaining a phenomenon
B.justifying an assumption
C.posing an argument
D.making a contrast

题目:

根据以下资料,回答题
  Insurance companies provide a service to the community by protecting it againstexpected and unexpected disasters.Before an insurance company will agree to ___1___anything,it collects accurate figures about the___2___.It knows,for example,that the risk of a man being killed in a plane accident is less than the risk he___3___ in crossing a busy road.This___4___ it to quote low figures for travel insurance.Sometimes the risk may be high,as in motorracing or mountaineering.Then the company___5___a much higher price.___6___too many climbers have accidents,the price rises still further.If the majority of climbers fall off mountains,the company will___7___ to insure them.
  An ordinary householder may wish to protect his home against fire or his ___8___ againstburglary.A shop keeper may wish to insure against___9___.Inlocases,the company willcheck its statistics and quote a premium.If it is___11___.it may refuse to quote.If it insures ashop and then receives a suspicious___12___,it will ___13___ the claim as a means of protecting itself against false claims.It is not unknown for a businessman in debt to burn down his own premises so that he can claim much money from his insurance company.He can be sure that the fire will be investigated most carefully.Insurance companies also___14___insurance against shipwreck or disaster in the air.Planes and ships are very expensive,SO a large___15___is charged,but a___16___is given to companies with an accident—free record.
  Every week insurance companies receive premium ___17___ from customers.Thesepayments can form a very large total___18___millions of dollars.The company does not leave the money in the bank.It___19___in property,shares,farms and even antique paintings and stamps.Its aim is to obtain the best possible return on its investment.This is not so greedy as it may seem,since this is one way by which it can deep its premiums down and continue to make a profit___20___being of service to the community.

A.assure
B.insure
C.ensure
D.pressure

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