The ocean is heating up. That’s the conclusion of a new study that finds that Earth’s oceans now(  ) heat at twice the rate they did 18 years ago. Around half of ocean heat intake since 1865 has taken place since 1997, researchers report online in Nature Climate Change.Warming waters are known to

(  )  to coral bleaching (珊瑚白化)and they take up more space than cooler waters, raising sea

(  )  While the top of the ocean is well studied, its depths are more difficult to

(  )  . The researchers gathered 150 years of ocean temperature data in order to get a better

(  )  of heat absorption from surface to seabed. They gathered together temperature readings collected by everything from a 19th century

(  )  of British naval ships to modem automated ocean probes. The extensive data sources,

(  )  with computer simulations (计算机模拟), created a timeline of ocean temperature changes, including cooling from volcanic outbreaks and warming from fossil fuel

(  )  . About 35 percent of the heat taken in by the oceans during the industrial era now resides at a

(  )  of more than 700 meters, the researchers found. They say they’re

(  )  whether the deep- sea warming canceled out warming at the sea’s surface.

A. absorb B. combined C. contribute D. depthE. emissionsF. excursionG. exploreH. floor I. heights J. indifferent K. levels L. mixed M. pictureN. unsureO. voyage


The Secret to Raising Smart Kids[A] I first began to investigate the basis of human motivation—and how people persevere after set-backs—as a psychology graduate student at Yale University in the 1960s. Animal experiments by psychologists at the University of Pennsylvania had shown that after repeated failures, most animals conclude that a situation is hopeless and beyond their control. After such an experience an animal often remains passive even when it can effect change—a state they called learned helplessness.[B] People can learn to be helpless, too. Why do some students give up when they encounter difficulty, whereas others who are no more skilled continue to strive and learn? One answer, I soon discovered, lay in people’s beliefs about why they had failed.[C] In particular, attributing poor performance to a lack of ability depresses motivation more than does the belief that lack of effort is to blame. When I told a group of school children who displayed helpless behavior that a lack of effort led to their mistakes in math, they learned to keep trying when the problems got tough. Another group of helpless children who were simply rewarded for their success on easier problems did not improve their ability to solve hard math problems. These experiments indicated that a focus on effort can help resolve helplessness and generate success.[D] Later, I developed a broader theory of what separates the two general classes of learners—helpless versus mastery-oriented. I realized these different types of students not only explain their failures differently, but they also hold different “theories” of intelligence. The helpless ones believe intelligence is a fixed characteristic: you have only a certain amount, and that’s that. I call this a “fixed mind-set (思维模式)Mistakes crack their self-confidence because they attribute errors to a lack of ability, which they feel powerless to change. They avoid challenges because challenges make mistakes more likely. The mastery-oriented children, on the other hand, think intelligence is not fixed and can be developed through education and hard work. Such children believe challenges are energizing rather than intimidating (令人生喪);they offer opportunities to learn. Students with such a growth mind-set were destined (;主定)for greater academic success and were quite likely to outperform their counterparts.[E] We validated these expectations in a study in which two other psychologists and I monitored 373 students for two years during the transition to junior high school, when the work gets more difficult and the grading more strict, to determine how their mind-sets might affect their math grades. At the beginning of seventh grade, we assessed the students’ mind-sets by asking them to agree or disagree with statements such as “Your intelligence is something very basic about you that you can’t really change.” We then assessed their beliefs about other aspects of learning and looked to see what happened to their grades.[F] As predicted, the students with a growth niind-set felt that learning was a more important goal than getting good grades. In addition, they held hard work in high regard. They understood, that even geniuses have to work hard. Confronted by a setback such as a disappointing test grade, students with a growth mind-set said they would study harder or try a different strategy. The students who held a fixed mind-set, however, were concerned about looking smart with less regard for learning. They had negative views of effort, believing that having to work hard was a sign of low ability.They thought that a person with talent or intelligence did not need to work hard to do well. Attributing a bad grade to their own lack of ability, those with a fixed mind-set said that they would study less in the future, try never to take that subject again and consider cheating on future tests.[G] Such different outlooks had a dramatic impact on performance. At the start of junior high, the math achievement test scores of the students with a growth mind-set were comparable to those of students who displayed a fixed mind-set. But as the work became more difficult, the students with a growth mind-set showed greater persistence. As a result, their math grades overtook those of the other students by the end of the first semester—and the gap between the two groups continued to widen during the two years we followed them.[H] A fixed mind-set can also hinder communication and progress in the workplace and discourage or ignore constructive criticism and advice. Research shows that managers who have a fixed mind-set are less likely to seek or welcome feedback from their employees than are managers with a growth mind-set.[I] How do we transmit a growth mind-set to our children? One way is by telling stories about achievements that result from hard work. For instance, talking about mathematical geniuses who were more or less bom that way puts students in a fixed mind-set, but descriptions of great mathematicians who fell in love with math and developed amazing skills produce a growth mind-set.[J] In addition, parents and teachers can help children by providing explicit instruction regarding the mind as a learning machine. I designed an eight-session workshop for 91 students whose math grades were declining in their first year of junior high. Forty-eight of the students received instruction in study skills only, whereas the others attended a combination of study skills sessions and classes in which they learned about the growth mind-set and how to apply it to schoolwork. In the growth mind-set classes, students read and discussed an article entitled “You Can Grow Your Brain.” They were taught that the brain is like a muscle that gets stronger with use and that learning prompts the brain to grow new connections. From such instruction, many students began to see themselves as agents of their own brain development. Despite being unaware that there- were two types of instruction, teachers reported significant motivational changes in 27% of the children in the growth mind-set workshop as compared with only 9% of students in the control group.[K] Research is converging (汇聚)on the conclusion that great accomplishment and even genius is typically the result of years of passion and dedication and not something that flows naturally from a gift.

The author’s experiment shows that students with a fixed mind-set believe having to work hard is an indication of low ability.Focusing on effort is effective in helping children overcome frustration and achieve success.We can cultivate a growth mind-set in children by telling success stories that emphasize hard work and love of learning.Students’ belief about the cause of their failure explains their attitude toward setbacks.In the author’s experiment, students with a growth mind-set showed greater perseverance in solving difficult math problems.The author conducted an experiment to find out about the influence of students’ mind-sets on math learning.After failing again and again, most animals give up hope.Informing students about the brain as a learning machine is a good strategy to enhance their motivation for learning.People with a fixed mind-set believe that one’s intelligence is unchangeable.In the workplace, feedback may not be so welcome to managers with a fixed mind-set.


For this part., you are allowed 30 minutes to translate a passage from Chinese into English. 在中国文化中,黄颜色是一种很重要的颜色,因为它具有独特的象征意义。在封建(feudal)社会中,它象征统治者的权力和权威。那时,黄色是专为皇帝使用的颜色,皇家宫殿全都漆成黄色,皇袍总是黄色的,而普 通老百姓是禁止穿黄色衣服的。在中国,黄色也是收获的象征。秋天庄稼成熟时,田野变得一片金黄。人们兴高采烈,庆祝丰收。