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题目:

If you want to spark a heated debate at a dinner party, bring up the topic of genetically modified foods. For many people, the concept of genetically altered, high-tech crop production raises all kinds of environmental, healthy, safety and ethical questions. Particularly in countries with long a grain traditions—and vocal green lobbies—the idea seems against nature.
In fact, genetically modified foods are already very much apart of out lives. A third of corn and more than half the soybeans and cotton grown in the U. S. last year were the product of biotechnology, according to the Department of Agriculture. More than 65 million a-cres of genetically modified crops will be planted in the U. S. this year. The genetic genie(鬼怪) is out of the bottle.
Yet there are clearly some very real issues that need to be resolved. Like any new prod-uct entering the food chain, genetically modified foods must be subjected to rigorous testing. In wealthy countries, the debate about biotech is tempered by the fact that we have a rich array of foods to choose from and a supply that far exceeds our needs. In developing countries desperate to feed fast-growing and underfed populations, the issue is simpler and much more urgent: Do the benefits of biotech outweigh the risks?
The statistics on population growth and hunger are disturbing. Last year the world's population reached 6 billion. The U. N. estimates that nearly 800 million people around the world are undernourished. The effects are devastating. About 400 million women of child-bearing age are iron deficient, which means their babies are exposed to various birth defects. As many as 100 million children suffer from vitamin A deficiency, a leading cause of blindness.
How can biotech help? Biotechnologists have developed genetically modified rice that is fortified with beta-carotene—which the body converts into vitamin A—and additional iron, and they are working on other kinds of nutritionally improved crops. Biotech can also improve farming productivity in places where food shortages are caused by crop damage attributable to pests, drought, poor soil and crop viruses, bacteria or fungi.
【1】What's the passage mainly about?
A.The world's food problems.
B.The new advancement in biotech.
C.The characteristics of genetically modified foods.
D.How biotech can help solve the world's food problems.
【2】The sentence “The genetic genie is out of the bottle.” in Para. 2 probably means__________.
A.the genetic genie has broken the bottle which controlled it
B.the genetic technology has broken out of laboratories into the marketplace
C.the genetically modified foods are available everywhere
D.the genetic technology has begun to cause a devastating effect on human beings
【3】Why are people in developed countries less concerned about genetically modified foods
A.They don’t have an urgent need for such foods.
B.They have a good temper to talk about things calmly.
C.They are far away from such foods and crops.
D.They are not concerned about other people in the world.
【4】According to the passage, genetically modified foods__________.
A.are superior to naturally grown foods
B.may help solve the problem of undernourishments
C.are going to replace naturally grown ones
D.can solve the food problems in developing countries
【5】The author’s attitude towards genetically modified foods is ________.
A.negative B.cautious
C.disapproving D.positive

题目:

New archaeological discovers suggest that trade between Europe and Asia along the Silk Road probably began in some form many centuries earlier than once thought. The findings, coupled with a widening range of scientific and historical research, could add a fascinating new page to the epic of the Silk Road.
The latest and most surprising discovery is pieces of silk found in the hair of an Egyptian mummy from about 1000 BC, long before regular traffic on the Silk Road and at least one thousand years before silk was previously thought to be used in Egypt. Other research may extend human activity along this route back even further, perhaps a million years to the migration of human ancestors into eastern Asia.
The official origin of East-West commerce along the road is usually placed in the late 2nd century BC when an agent of the Chinese Emperor Wu-di returned from a dangerous secret mission across the western desert into the remote high country of Central Asia. The agent, Zhang Qian, travelled as far as Afghanistan and brought back knowledge of even more distant lands such as Persia, Syria and a place known as Lijien, perhaps Rome. Historians have called this one of the most important journeys in ancient times. His journey opened the way for what have been thought to be the first indirect contacts between the ancient world’s two superpowers, China and Rome. Chinese silk, first traded to central Asian tribes for war horses and to the Parthians of old Persia in exchange for acrobats and ostrich eggs, was soon finding its way through a network of merchants to the luxury markets of Rome.
But the new discoveries show that Chinese silk was apparently present in the West long before the Han emperor started organized trade over the Silk Road. The research could change thinking about the early history of world trade and provide insights into the mystery of just how and when Europe and the Mediterranean lands first became aware of the glorious culture at the other end of Eurasia.
【1】The word “coupled” in the first paragraph could best be replaced by ____________.
A.produced B.doubled
C.combined D.contributed
【2】What does the silk thread found in the hair of an Egyptian mummy suggest
A.That trade along the Silk Road began earlier than once thought
B.Historical research often achieves fascinating results
C.Egyptians had probably travelled to China to buy silk
D.The new light can now be thrown on ancient trading practices
【3】Until recently most historians believed that trade along the Silk Road ____________.
A.extended human migration into eastern Asia
B.primarily benefited the Egyptians
C.began a million years ago
D.originated in the 2nd century BC
【4】Why have Historians always considered Zhang Qian’s mission important
A.Because it discovered the Silk Road
B.Because he helped establish East-West trade
C.Because he brought back knowledge of Rome to the emperor
D.Because he travelled as far as Afghanistan

题目:

We have encountered a crisis around the corner. You mean global warming The world economy No, the decline of reading. People are just not doing it anymore, especially the young. Who’s responsible
Actually, it’s more like, what is responsible The Internet, of course, and everything that comes with it – Facebook, Twitter . You can write your own list.
There’s been a warning about the imminent death of literate civilization for a long time. In the 20th century, first it was the movies, then radio, then television that seemed to spell doom for the written world. None did. Reading survived; in fact it not only survived, it has flourished. The world is more literate than ever before – there are more and more readers, and more and more books.
The fact that we often get our reading material online today is not something we should worry over. The electronic and digital revolution of the last two decades has arguably shown the way forward for reading and for writing. Take the arrival of e-book readers as an example.
Devices like Kindle make reading more convenient and are a lot more environmentally friendly than the traditional paper book.
As technology makes new ways of writing possible, new ways of reading are possible. Interconnectivity allows for the possibility of a reading experience that was barely imaginable before. Where traditional books had to make do with photographs and illustrations, an e-book can provide readers with an unlimited number of links: to texts, pictures, and videos. In the future, the way people write novels, history, and philosophy will resemble nothing seen in the past.
On the other hand, there is the danger of trivialization. One Twitter group is offering its followers single-sentence-long “digests” of the great novels. War and Peace in a sentence You must be joking. We should fear the fragmentation of reading. There is the danger that the high-speed connectivity of the Internet will reduce our attention span—that we will be incapable of reading anything of length or which requires deep concentration.
In such a fast-changing world, in which reality seems to be remade each day, we need the ability to focus and understand what is happening to us. This has always been the function of literature and we should be careful not to let it disappear. Our society needs to be able to imagine the possibility of someone utterly in tune with modern technology but able to make sense of a dynamic, confusing world.
In the 15th century, Johannes Guttenberg’s invention of the printing press in Europe had a huge impact on civilization. Once upon a time the physical book was a challenging thing. We should remember this before we assume that technology is out to destroy traditional culture.
【1】The following are all cited as advantages of e-books EXCEPT _____.
A.multimodal content B.environmental friendliness
C.convenience for readers D.imaginative design
【2】Which of the following can best describe how the author feels toward single-sentence-long novels
A.Ironic B.Worried.
C.Impersonal D.Doubtful.
【3】According to the passage, people need knowledge of modern technology and _____ to survive in the fast-changing society.
A.good judgment B.high sensitivity
C.good imagination D.the ability to focus
【4】What is the main idea of the passage
A.Technology pushes the way forward for reading and writing.
B.Interconnectivity is a feature of new reading experience.
C.Technology is an opportunity and a challenge for traditional reading.
D.Technology offers a greater variety of reading practice.

题目:

Women may have good reason to drink coffee as much as they like. According to recent research, women who drank three or more cups of coffee a day were 30 percent less likely to have memory decline at age 65 than whose who drank one cup or less daily. And the benefit increased with age. Women over age 80 who drank three or more cups of coffee a day were about 70 percent less likely to have memory decline than those who drank one cup or less, the researchers said.
Caffeinated tea had the same effect in the women, the study found, although more was needed to get the same caffeine boost. "Count roughly two cups of tea for a cup of coffee," said study leader Karen Ritchie of INSERM, the French National Institute for Health and Medical Research.
But the researchers didn't find a similarly protective effect in men, although other studies have found a benefit to males.
How might caffeine help ward off cognitive decline “It is a cognitive stimulant." said Ritchie. “It also helps to reduce levels of the protein called beta amyloid in the brain,” she said, “whose accumulation is responsible for Alzheimer's disease but which also occurs in normal aging.”
Ritchie said she wasn't sure why men in the study didn't benefit from caffeine. “Our hypothesis is that either women metabolize caffeine differently than men, or there may be an interaction of the caffeine with the sex hormones,” she said.
The French study confirms previous research, said William Scott, professor of medicine at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, who has researched caffeine's beneficial effects against Parkinson's disease, also a neurodegenerative disorder.
As for caffeine only protecting women, Scott noted that just 2,800 of the 7,000 study participants were men, and the results might have differed if more men were included.
A study published in February in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition looked at 676 healthy men and found that regular coffee drinkers had a lower rate of cognitive decline over a 10-year follow-up than those who didn't drink coffee. Those who drank three cups daily had the least signs of decline.
Both Scott and Ritchie agreed that more study is needed. Ritchie's research will next look at the relationship between caffeine and Alzheimer's.
【1】As it is indicated in the 1st paragraph, how does coffee influence women’s memory
A.The older the woman was. the more remarkable her memory was.
B.The more coffee the woman drank, the more slowly her memory declined.
C.The older the woman was, the more slowly her memory declined.
D.The more coffee the woman drank. the more remarkable her memory was.
【2】According to Ritchie. Alzheimer's disease is resulted from________________.
A.the lack of caffeine in the brain
B.the accumulation of beta amyloid
C.high level of proteins in the brain
D.abnormal metabolism in normal aging
【3】William Scott would most probably agree that caffeine helped_______________.
A.reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease
B.interfere with the process of cognitive decline
C.balance the production of female hormones
D.protect both men and women from diseases
【4】What was the author's attitude towards the research of caffeine's beneficial effect on men
A.Doubtful.
B.Convinced.
C.Matter-of-fact.
D.Cautious.

题目:

Molecular biologist Elizabeth Blackburn shared a Nobel Prize for her research on telomeres (端粒)—structures at the tips of chromosomes (染色体)that play a key role in cellular aging. _____ she was frustrated that the important health implications of her work weren’t reaching beyond academia.
So along with psychologist Elissa Epel, she has published her findings in a new book ______ a general audience -- laying out a scientific case that may give readers________ to keep their new year's resolutions to not smoke, eat well, sleep enough, exercise regularly,and _______stress.
The main message of The Telomere Effect, being published Tuesday, is that you have more control over your own aging than you may imagine. You can actually _______ your telomeres—and perhaps your life—by following sound health advice, the authors argue, based on a review of thousands of studies.
“Telomeres listen to you, they listen to your _______,they listen to your state of mind,” said Blackburn, president of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolia, Calif.
Telomeres sit at the end of the strands of DNA, like the _______ caps on shoelaces. Stress from a rough lifestyle will shorten those caps, making it more likely that cells will ______ piding and essentially die.
Too many of these cells accelerate_______,the pair say. This doesn’t cause any particular disease, but research suggests that it speeds up the time when whatever your genes have in store will occur -- so if you’re _______ to heart disease,you're more likely to get it younger if your telomeres are shorter, said Epel, director of the University of California, San Francisco’s Aging, Metabolism and Emotions Center.
“We can provide a new level of specificity and tell people more precisely with clues _____from telomere science, about what exactly ______ is related to long telomeres, what exact foods are related to long telomeres, what aspects of sleep are more related to long telomeres,” Epel added.
Other researchers in the field praised Blackburn and Epel’s efforts to make telomere research relevant to the general public, ______ several warned that it risked ______ the science.
“I think it’s a very difficult thing to prove that lifestyle can affect telomere length and therefore lifespan,”said Harvard geneticist and anti-aging researcher David Sinclair. “To get cause-effect in humans is _____,so it’s based on associations.”
【1】A.Hence B.Furthermore C.But D.And
【2】A.referred to B.addressed to C.aimed at D.informed of
【3】A.implication B.warning C.appealing D.motivation
【4】A.cut down on B.contribute to C.lay emphasis on D.add to
【5】A.enhance B.lengthen C.shorten D.simplify
【6】A.extinction B.behaviors C.instincts D.attitudes
【7】A.influential B.inevitable C.progressive D.protective
【8】A.initiate B.neglect C.cease D.maintain
【9】A.human health B.human aging C.human resolution D.psychological stress
【10】A.relevant B.sensitive C.reluctant D.dedicated
【11】A.emerging B.suffering C.profiting D.suspending
【12】A.illness B.gene C.smoking D.exercise
【13】A.though B.because C.so D.or
【14】A.overestimating B.oversimplifying C.underestimating D.over-viewing
【15】A.impropriate B.impossible C.irrelevant D.imaginary

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