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题目:


various health-related advisory and intermediary agencies are encouraged to be set up to assist all parties to reduce expenditure.

题目:

questions 下列are based on the following passage.
the most important pide in america today is class, not race, and the place where it matters most is in the home.conservatives have been banging on about family breakdown for decades.now one of the nation's most prominent liberal scholars has joined the chorus.
robert putnam is a former dean of harvard's kennedy school of government and the author of bowling alone (2000), an influential work that lamented the decline of social capital in america, in his new book, our kids, he describes the growing gulf between how the rich and the poor raise their children.among the educated elite the traditional family is thriving : fewer than 10% of births to female college graduates are outside marriage--a figure that is barely higher than it was in 1970.in 2007 among women with just a high-school education, by contrast, 65% of births were non-marital.race makes a difference : only 2% of births to white college graduates are out-of-wedlock, compared with 80% among african-americans with no more than a high-school education, but neither of these figures has changed much since the 1970s.however, the non-marital birth proportion among high-school-educated whites has quadrupled, to 50% , and the same figure for college-educated blacks has fallen by a third, to 25%.thus the class pide is growing even as the racial gap is shrinking.
upbringing affects opportunity.upper-middle-class homes are not only richer(with two professional incomes ) and more stable; they are also more nurturing.in the 1970s, there were practically no class differences in the amount of time that parents spent talking, reading and playing with toddlers.now the children of college-educated parents receive 50% more of what mr.putnam calls "goodnight moon" time (after a popular book for infants).
working-class parents, who have less spare capacity, are more likely to demand that their kids simply obey them.in the short run this saves time; in the long run it prevents the kids from learning to organize their own lives or think for themselves.poor parenting is thus a barrier to social mobility, and is becoming more so as the world grows more complex and the rewards for superior cognitive skills increase.
stunningly, mr.putnam finds that family background is a better predictor of whether or not a child will graduate from university than 8th-gmde test scores.kids in the richest quarter with low test scores are as likely to make it through college as kids in the poorest quarter with high scores.
mr.putnam suggests a grab-bag of policies to help poor kids reach their potential, such as raising subsidies for poor families, teaching them better parenting skills, improving nursery care and making after-school baseball clubs free.he urges all 50 states to experiment to find out what works.a problem this complex has no simple solution.

题目:


"goodnight moon" time (line 5, para.3) refers to the time of_________
a.providing opportunity for kids
b.giving more nourishment to kids
c.being involved in the education of kids
d.reading popular books to infants

题目:

questions 下列are based on the following passage.
everyone arriving at a hospital's emergency room ( er)' wishes to be seen quickly, but for stroke patients it can be a matter of life or death.the most common stroke involves a blood clot blocking vessels in the brain, killing brain cells nearby almost immediately.luckily, an effective treatment exists.thrombolytic (溶解血栓的) therapy uses drugs to dissolve the clot and restore the flow of blood.if started within a couple of hours of a stroke occurring, it can limit brain damage and reduce long-term disability.neurologists even have a catchphrase for this: "time is brain".
understandably, hospitals strive to identify stroke cases and administer such medication without delay.a key step is using a computed tomography (ct) scanner to ensure that there has been no bleeding in the brain, in which case thrombolytic drugs would make things worse.the last couple of decades have seen many innovations in reducing this "time to ct".
but in shaving seconds from medical procedures, researchers may have neglected something more important:, the human element.gal ifergane, a neurologist at soroka university medical centre in southern israel, noticed that stroke patients who were accompanied to the er by friends or family seemed to fare better than those who arrived alone.so for 15 months, er staff at soroka recorded the number of companions escorting each stroke sufferer, over 700 in all, and tracked their progress.
the results, recently published in medicine, tell a striking story.stroke victims arriving with someone were more than twice as likely to be correctly diagnosed by the triage nurse, and had their ct scans performed earlier.patients eligible for clot-busting medication also received it much faster if accompanied, although their numbers were too few for the researchers to be sure it was because they had company.the differences were far from trivial.patients with one companion had ct scans an average of 15 minutes sooner than those unaccompanied.a second companion shaved a further 20 minutes off the walt, although three or more companions did not confer any additional benefit.
dr.ffergane did not record who the companions were, however, or how they were able to reduce delays.he believes that it is probably a combination of focusing the attention of clinical staff on their loved ones, and providing basic care such as helping to move patients into bed.
dr.ffergane admits that his study has limitations.the sample size was rather small and his findings may reflect cultural norms in israel that do not apply elsewhere.but he has already tried to make changes in the way the soroka university medical centre operates."we asked our security team to allow two people to come in with stroke patients rather than just one," he says."and we now consider stroke patients who are coming alone as a group at risk."
dr.ifergane also recommends that ers provide a friendly "stroke liaison" to accompany lone patients during the diagnostic and treatment processes.something other hospitals might think about, too.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答下列题
shock treatment
[a]the objective of america's affordable care act of 2010--commonly known as obamacare--was to ensure that the 40m-plus americans who lacked health insurance could get it.less widely appreciated, but at least as important, are the incentives and penalties the law introduced to make the country's terribly expensive and poorly performing health services safer and more efficient.economists are debating on how much credit obamacare should get for a recent moderation in the growth of health costs, and for a fall in the number of patients having to be readmitted to hospital.whatever the answer is, many companies see the disruption unleashed by the reforms as the business opportunity of a lifetime.
[ b ] one of the biggest shifts under way is to phase out the "fee for service" model, in which hospitals and doctors' surgeries are reimbursed (补偿) for each test or treatment with no regard for the outcome, encouraging them to put patients through unnecessary and expensive procedures.since obamacare they are increasingly being paid by results--a flat fee for each successful hip replacement, say.there are also incentives for providers which meet cost or performance targets, and new requirements for hospitals to disclose their prices.
[ c ] millions of people are now looking for health insurance on the new public exchanges set up under the reforms.and obamacare has come into effect at a time when american employers, who often provide health cover for their workers, are seeking to cut its cost by encouraging them to shop around on private exchanges, and by offering less generous plans.
[ d ] the result is that there are growing numbers of consumers seeking better treatment for less money.existing health-care providers will have to adapt, or lose business.all sorts of other businesses, old and new, are seeking either to take market share from the conventional providers, or to provide the software and other tools that help hospitals, doctors, insurers and patients make the most of this new world.
[e] patients are increasingly having to pay higher "'deductibles(免赔额)" out of their own pockets, before the insurance kicks in, to keep the cost of the cover down.so for minor ailments and simple tests, it makes sense for such patients to go to one of the increasing numbers of walk-in clinics, staffed by well-qualified nurses, on the premises of retail pharmacies such as walgreens.the prices are clear, the care is cheap and the service is quick.walgreens has a partnership with theranos, a diagnostics firm, which offers customers a range of tests from a tiny drop of blood.walmart, a giant supermarket chain with many in-store pharmacies, also intends to become one of the leading sellers of affordable health services, says alex hurd, its product-development chief.
[ f ] for injuries and illnesses that are more serious but not immediately life-threatening, lots of "urgent-care centers" are being opened as an alternative to going to a hospital emergency unit.private-equity fn~ms are pouring money into independent chains of centers.merchant medicine, a consulting firm, reckons that between them, these chains now have just over 1,500 urgent-care centers, up from about 1,300 at the start of 2013.the market is still fragmented but a national brand could emerge from one of the largest chains, such as concentra or medexpress.
[ g] some hospital operators, seeking to cut their costs of care, and choosing to be among the disrupters rather than the disrupted, are also opening urgent-care centers.aurora health care, a wisconsin-bused chain of hospitals and clinics, now has more than 30 of them.
[ h] hospital operators are now facing a classic " innovator's dilemma ", as described by claychristensen, a harvard business professor.if they persist with their high-cost business model even as their customers discover that cheaper alternatives are good enough, they will be in trouble.according to strata decision technology, an analytics firm, many hospital groups saw what wascoming and started to cut their costs well before the provisions of obamacare started to bite.oneof the fastest movers is advocate health care, a hospital operator from illinois, which says it nowearns two-thirds of its revenues from value-based payments.
[ i ] the largest chains of for-profit hospitals, such as tenet healthcare, hca and community healthsystems, are rather profitable.they have trimmed their costs, been conservative with capital and,thanks to obamacare raising the number of americans with health insurance, now have morepatients and fewer bad debts.however, credit-rating agencies are worried about the prospects forthe not-for-profit hospitals, which are 60% of the total.with lower margins, and less capital tomake investments, they have become targets for takeover, says jim bonnette of the advisoryboard company, another consulting outfit.
[j]as a result, further consolidation in the hospital business is likely.this could mean greater[ j]efficiency and lower costs.but if antitrust authorities are not vigilant, it may lead to a concentration of market power.if so, the benefits from the efficiencies being wrung out of the hospital system may end up in the pockets of shareholders rather than saving patients and insurers money.
[ k] obamacare is also encouraging the creation of all sorts of health-related advisory and intermediary companies that help care providers, insurers and patients save money.a company called vitals approaches employees on behaff of their company's health plan, and offers them cash rewards, and a taxi, if they agree to be treated at a cheaper provider.the sums to be saved can be astonishing: a new cost-comparison tool created by blue cross blue shield, a big alliance of private health insurers, has found that a colonoscopy (结肠镜检查) with a biopsy costs $8,489 at one clinic in chapel hill, north carolina, but just $ 928 at another provider in greensboro, only 50 miles (80km) or so away.
[l] cohealo offers a "sharing economy" solution for hospitals and clinics wanting to make the best use of expensive equipment, in much the same way as airbnb helps people with spare rooms fill them with paying guests.doximity is trying to be a facebook for doctors, letting them refer patients and discuss treatments securely without the blizzard of faxes they rely on today.grand rounds is a sort of medical match.com: an online matchmaker that pairs patients with specialists.as in other industries, administrators are being tempted to switch to renting software and data storage in the online "cloud" : athenahealth, a seller of medical back-office software, is trying to get doctors and hospitals to move patients' health records onto its cloud-based service.
preliminary diagnosis
[ m ] for supporters of obamacare, it is clear that the reforms are empowering patients, driving public and private health insurers to achieve better value, forcing existing providers to shape up and providing opportunities for disruptive newcomers.digital technology is also helping to increase transparency about prices, making it easier to share information and increase efficiency.for some analysts it all adds up to a "' new health economy"--as pwc, a consulting firm, puts it--the most significant re-engineering of the american health system, by far the world's costliest, since employers began providing cover for their workers in the 1930s.
[ n] and the revolution has only just begun.the obama administration recently set a target of making 50% of medicare payments value-based, rather than fee for service, by the end of 2018.america's largest private payers have a target of 75% by 2020.so hospitals do not have long to shape up.some will have their profits squeezed, and customers stolen by new rivals.some may close, or be taken over.but for other businesses, from supermarket and pharmacy chains to digital-health startups, there will be billions to be made.

题目:

digital technology helps make the cost of health care more transparent, contributes to the sharing of information and improves efficiency.

题目:


the example of fairfax county father is cited to show
a.parents' misunderstanding about aps
b.adverse impact brought about by aps
c.great learning pressure of students
d.common concern of academic circles

题目:


questions 下列 are based on the following passage.
in recent years there has been much talk of a "renaissance" in american manufacturing.a few things seemed to be on the side of the makers.for instance, until recently the dollar was weak.american wages were stagnant, but those in china were booming.cheap shale oil and gas gave factories a boost.but as we argued recently, talking of a renaissance is overblown.and new figures, released today, add to the mounting pile of evidence saying that manufacturing growth is starting to slow.
we argued before that although there has been a recovery in american manufacturing in recent years, it is not a sustainable one.employment in the sector is still lower than before the crash.so is one important measure of output: real value added.in short, america has not got better at producing stuff.also, much of the recovery in american manufacturing seems to be based on a cyclical boom in"durable" goods--things that you expect to last a long time, like cars and fridges.during the recession, orders for durable goods plunged.that's because it is quite easy to put off such purchases.by contrast, it is more difficult to put off purchases of non-durable goods, like medicines, because people tend to consume them more frequently.
after the recession, production of durable goods soared.cheap credit, for instance, spurred demand for new motors and rapid growth in carmaking.that sector accounted for over a third of the durable growth from 2009 to 2013.yet a recovery based on a few durables industries is unsustalnable.this is because when pent-up demand is satisfied, a few big industries will suffer.overall output is likely to stall.
new data confirm this prediction.orders for durable goods fell by 1.4% in february.motor-vel~cle orders fell by 0.5%.it is possible that the recent bad weather has had an effect here.but it may be a sign of something more troubling.as economists at capital economics, a consultancy, argue, "the more general malaise started back in the autumn of last year.indeed, core orders .have now fallen in every month since last october."
in recent months, non-durable goods have also fallen quite rapidly.what explains all this the obvious culprit is the strong dollar, because it makes manufacturing exports (which account for roughly half of america's total) more expensive.alternatively, it may be because consumers are starting to pull back on spending.in january, consumer credit grew at the slowest pace in over a year, according to recent data from the federal reserve.in recent months consumer confidence has dropped a bit.and companies may not be so confident, either, and are thus not in the mood to add to capital stock, says steven ricchiuto of mizuho securities, an investment bank.this does not bode well for american manufacturing or, indeed, for economic growth overall.

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microgrids, an approach of cutting peak demand, is beneficial to both consumers and the earth.

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a new technology allows small energy savings from ninny different customers to be gathered together.

题目:

questions 下列are based on the following passage.
last year, i wrote a piece entitled "why we wrongly freak out over ap" three to five advanced placement courses in high school would satisfy most selective colleges, i said, "taking six, seven, eight or 20 ap courses will almost never make you more attractive to those colleges that reject more students than they accept."
one fairfax county father, though, told me his sophomore daughter wanted to go to the university of virginia, but to do that, someone in authority at her high school said that she had to take about nine or 10 aps.
according to the father, the adviser said "selective colleges want to see applicants take the most challenging courses at their high school, which means ap." that is true, but it does not mean you have to take that many, unless you groove on stress.many parents and students, and some educators, share the father's concern.
introductory collegecourses such as ap,international baccalaureate and the advanced international certificate of education have done much to improve u.s.high schools in the past 30 years.they allow teachers to raise instruction, even for average students, to a level that prepares them for the rigors of college, as few high school courses do.since the fmal exams in these programs are written and graded by independent experts, any attempt to dumb down an ap, ib or aice course produces an embarrassing and revealing result: high grades from the teacher but fairing marks on the exam, the results of which arrive after school is over.
for most students applying to selective colleges from most high schools, taldng three to five ap, ib or aice courses are fine.if they come from a school with no or few such courses, admissions officers find other ways to gauge readiness.students applying to the vast majority of schools will find those colleges delighted to see any aps.
selective colleges get far more applicants with strong aps and other signs of academic readiness than they have room to accept.from that group, they pick the ones with the deepest extracurriculars, warmest recommendations, best essays and most unusual family backgrounds.
but in some very high-performing high schools in the washington region, many students still will take more ap, ib and aice courses than they need, often because it makes them feel more secure.because selective colleges look closely at how applicants from the same school compare with each other, the fairfax county father's child needs to keep up with other u-va.aspirants in her class.that does not mean she has to take nine or 10 aps.
"most admitted students from fairfax county have not taken nine to 10 ap courses over their high school careers," u-va.dean of admission gregory roberts told me."that would be a very, very demanding course schedule for a high school student."shirley bloomquist, a great falls-based educational consultant, has an encyclopedic grasp of u-~a.admissions.she said students accepted at u-va.these days "will have generally taken seven or more ap courses in no particular order.

题目:

根据下面资料,回答下列题
all change
[ a ] the basic model of the electricity industry was to send high voltages over long distances to passive customers.power stations were big and costly, built next to coal mines, ports, oil refineries or- for hydroelectric generation--reservoirs.many of these places were a long way from the industrial and population centers that used the power.the companies' main concern was to supply the juice, and particularly to meet peaks in demand.
[ b ] that model, though simple and profitable for utilities and generators, was costly for consumers.but it is now changing to a "much more colorful picture", says michael weinhold of siemens.not only are renewables playing a far bigger role; thanks to new technology, demand can also be tweaked (l) to match supply, not the other way round.traditional power stations and grids still play a role in this world, but not a dominant one.they have to compete with new entrants, and with existing participants doing new things.flattening the peaks
[ c ] the most expensive electricity in any power system is that consumed at peak time, so instead of cranking up a costly and probably dirty power station, the idea is to pay consumers to switch off instead.for someone nmning a large cooling, heating or pumping system, for example, turning the power off for a short period will not necessarily cause any disruption.but for the grid operator the spare power gained is very useful.
[ d ] this has been tried before: in france, a heat wave in 2003 hit the cooling systems of nuclear power stations and led to power shortages.in response, big energy consumers agreed to cut their power consumption at peak times, in exchange for generous rebates.the japanese have installed 200,000 home energy-management systems that do something similar on a domesc scale.but new technology takes it to another level, allowing a lot of small power savings from a large number of consumers to be bundled together.
[ e] nest is selling its programmes all over north america, and more recently in britain, too.customers of its "rush hour rewards" programme can choose between being given no ice a day in advance of a two- to four-hour "event" ( meaning their thermostat will be turned down or up automatically) or being told ten minutes ahead of a 30-minute one, this can cu~ the peak load byas much as 55%.
[ f] nrg, amenca's biggest indepemdent power company, is moving into the market.david crone.is chief executive admitsfred the idea of saving power "un- american".batthat for companies", of megawatts" is a dead end in 2013 nrg bought a energy curtailment specialists, which controls 2gw.
[g] the big foris theenns on which they compete with traditional generatom, which argue the markets such as pjm are starving the power system of badly neededinvesunent.forexample, energy,acompanyinohio,suspended modernization plans at a coal-fired plant which failed to win any megawatm in the auction for 2017-2018.such plants are viable only ff utilities are paying top dollars for peak electricity--a cost which is eventually passed on to the consumer.companies like firstenergy hope that the supreme court will overturn a ruling by the federal energy regulatory commission that negawatts be treated like megawatts in capacity auctions.these worries are already spooking the market.enernoc, which bundles together small energy savings from many different customers to offer negawatts, has seen its share price fall by haft since may.
[ h ] in any case, the days of the vertically integrated model of energy supply are numbered, observes dieter helm.thanks to abundant solar power, he argues, the energy market increasingly resembles the economics of the internet, where marginal costs are zero.that "undermines the very idea of wholesale electricity markets".the future model will be much more fragmented.independent generators, plus new entxants, are already "revolutionizing the way electricity is sold and use" ; new technologies will make the 21st-century model even more different."no wonder many of the energy giants of the past are already in such trouble," he says.no longer so useful
[ i ]the combination of distributed and intermittent generation, ever cheaper storage and increasingly intelligent consumption has created a perfect storm for utilities, particularly those in europe, says eduard sala de vedruna of ihs, a consultancy.they are stuck with the costs of maintaining the grid and meeting peak demand, but without the means to make customers pay for it properly.their expensively built generating capacity is oversized; spare capacity in europe this winter is 100gw, or 19% of the constituent countries' combined peak loads.much of that is mothballed and may have to be written off.yet at the same time new investment is urgently needed to keep the grid reliable, and especially to make sure it can cope with new kinds of power flow--from "prosumers" back to the grid, for example.
[ j] to general surprise, demand is declining as power is used more efficiently.politicians and regulators are unsympathetic, malting the utilities pay for electricity generated by other people's
assets, such as rooftop solar, to keep the greens happy.at the same time barriers to entry have collapsed.new energy companies do not need to own lots of infrastructure.their competitive advantage rests on algorithms( 算法), sensors, processing power and good marketing--not usually the strong points of traditional utilities.all the services offered by these new entrants--demand response, supply, storage and energy efficiency--eat into the utilities' business model.
[ k] the problem for the state's electricity utilities is that they still have to provide a reliable supply when the sun is not shining.but consumers, thanks to "net metering", may have an electricity bill of zero.that means the utilities' revenues suffer, and consumers without solar power cross- subsidize those with it.rows about this are flaring across america.many utilities are asking regulators to impose a fixed monthly charge on consumers, rather than just let them pay variable tariffs.since going completely off-grid still involves buying a large amount of expensive storage, the betting is that consumers will be willing to pay a monthly fee so they can fall back on the utilities when they need to.
[ l] consumers, understandably, are resisting such efforts.in arizona the utilities wanted a $ 50 fixed monthly charge; the regulator allowed $ 5.in wisconsin they asked for $ 25 and got $19.even these more modest sums may help the utilities a bit.but the bigger threat is that larger consumers ( and small ones willing to join forces) can go their own way and combine generation, storage and demand response to run their own energy systems, often called "microgrids".they may maintain a single high-capacity gas or electricity connection to the outside world for safety's sake, but still run everything downstream from themselves.
[ m ] some organizations, such as military bases, may have specific reasons to want to be independent of outside suppliers, but for most of them the main motive is to save money.places like university of california, san diego (ucsd.not ouly save money with their microgrids but advance research as well.a server analyses 84,000 data streams every second.a company called zbb energy has installed innovative zinc-bromide batteries; another company is trying out a 28kw supercapacitor (超级电容器)--a storage device far faster and more powerful than any chemical battery.
[ n ] in one sense, ucsd is not a good customer for the local utility, san diego gas electric.the microgrid imports only 8% of its power from the utility.but it can help out when demand elsewhere is tight, cutting its own consumption by turning down air-conditioners and other power- thirsty devices and sending the spare electricity to the grid.ucsd is one of scores of such microgrids pioneering new ways of using electricity efficiently and cheaply through better design, data-processing technology and changes in behavior.the iea reckons that this approach could cut peak demand for power in industrialized countries by 20%.that would be good for both consumers and the planet.

题目:

a more cost-effective alternative than building power stations to meet the peak is to pay consumers to cut off the power.

题目:


questions下列 are based on the following passage.
job hunting is never easy, but what if data could be used to make the process a little less stressfulcompanies such as linkedln and monster.com hold vast amounts of information on people's professional lives, but there is one organization that surpasses them all: the federal government.although rich and comprehensive, government labor data can often be hard to access, bound by red tape and cloaked in jargon.
"with today's technologies, we can do a lot more to build open dam sets for skills," said aneesh chopra, the white house's first chief technology officer and founder of arlington-based start-up hunch analytics.during his tenure, chopra's role involved making government dam more accessible.it's a mission he has continued after his departure, assembling a band of public officials, tech entrepreneurs and think-tank analysts whose focus is firmly on the labor market.
a robust economic recovery tempered by flat wages has reinforced the need to connect americans with higher-paying technology jobs, according to the white house.that was the rationale behind the president's new initiative, announced last week, to train and hire americans for more than 500,000 unfilled information teclmology jobs through partnerships with local communities.
"there's not a standard, real-time, modem way to identify all the skills our economy needs in play today.worlfforce and talent planners have a daunting job in ensuring they have a 'ready-now' workforce, so the more dam they can get, the better informed they are." said leighanne levensaler, senior vice president of products at workday, a human resources software company that was involved in the project.
the closest thing to a standard national database is the labor department's occupational information network website, known as o * net.built in the 1990s, the site compiles dam on more than 900 occupations, with details about job skills, average compensation and a search tool to find jobs by state.but although the site is continually updated, it has been slow to keep pace with the changing job market, according to chopra and levensaler.
a push to modernize o * net is the group's next big undertaking.the president's 2016 budget proposal includes a $ 5 million request to study and test approaches "to modernize and potentially streamline dam collection" for o * net. the measure seeks to provide " up-to-date coverage of occupations and skills, particularly for high-growth, changing industries." chopra convened a roundtable of government officials, academics and private-sector executives last month to discuss measures to improve o * net.workday and linkedin are among the companies interested in the effort-- which is still at a conceptual stage, chopra said.
to open-dam advocates such as chopra, there's no better time to harness the power of information for the economy."no one company, no matter how amazing they are, has the capacity to get every employer in america to open up their skills data for every job posting," he said."the government has the capacity to convene stakeholders to open up the dam."

题目:

in what respect is the company database inferior to that of federal government
a.amplitude.
b.accessibility.
c.integrity.
d.authority.

题目:


it's concluded that better sleep should be prescribed to treat metabolic disorders such as obesity.

题目:


sleep therapy is increasingly recommended for the treatment of conunon illnesses, disorders and mental health.

题目:


some of the- common sleep therapies include lifestyle advice, sleeping position adjustment, surgery and medication, etc.

题目:


the use of some electronic devices before bedtime is associated with taking longer to fail asleep and disrupts sleep.

题目:


a cancer patient has not only found herself more refreshed but her tumors decreased after modifying her sleep habits.

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